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THE GIFT OF 

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1387 



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Earliest Cambridge stetioners& 



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ILLUSTRATED MONOGRAPHS 

No. XIII 



The Earlier 
Cambridge Stationers & Bookbinders 

and 

The First Cambridge Printer 



BY 

GEORGE J. GRAY 



PRINTED FOR THE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY 

AT THE OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

October 1904 

) 



KaT'^^4V 



TO 

ROBERT BOWES 

THIS WORK IS DEDICATED AS AN ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 
OF MANY ENCOURAGEMENTS 



PREFACE 

Among the many persons to whom my thanks are due for their 
help in this monograph I must more especially mention Mr. E. J. 
Worman for constant valuable aid; Dr. F. J. H. Jenkinson for 
examining the proof-sheets and making numerous alterations and 
suggestions, as well as comparing some of the documents with the 
originals ; Mr. E. Gordon Duff for generously placing his materials at 
my disposal ; Mr. F. Madan for reading the proof-sheets ; Mr. Strickland 
Gibson for reading the proof-sheets and presenting me with his 
rubbings of Cambridge bindings ; Mr. J. E. Foster for the use of 
the advance sheets of his transcript of the Parish Book of Great 
Saint Mary's Church, Cambridge ; and Mr. Robert Bowes for the 
use of his notes and the loan of the two blocks used on Plate XXIII. 

The Cambridge Antiquarian Society by the publication of several 
valuable works, mentioned frequently in these pages, supplied a good 
deal of material which otherwise would not have been available. 

Mr. W. H. J. Weale's Bookbindings and Rubbings of Bindings 
in National Art Library, South Kensington Museum, has been of 
great service. 

GEORGE J. GRAY. 



The Elms, Chesterton, Cambridge, 
Tune. iqo4. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

part i. to the end of the fifteenth century . . . i-24 

John Hardy 3 

Gerard Wake 10 

John Ward n 

— FYDYON, or FYDYOHN II 

William Squire . la 

Walter Hatley 12 

Summary of the position of Stationers and Binders 

in the University 15 

Appendix A, Prices of Writing, Binding, Repairing, &c. i 8 

B. Sales of Book Cautions ... aa 

C. Books with ' Cautions ' . . . .33 

PART II. Sixteenth Century 25-73 

Petrus Breynans 36 

Garrett Godfrey a8 

Nicholas Spierinck 43 

John Siberch 54 

Segar Nicholson 62 

Peter Bright 64 

Leonard of Christ's College 65 

Nicholas Pilgrim 65 

Richard Noke 66 

John Scarlett 66 

John Seth 68 

Peter Sheres 68 

John Sheres 68 

Baxter the Stationer 70 

Simon Watson 70 

John Cuthbert 71 

REGULATIONS concerning Booksellers, Bookbinders, and Sta- 
tioners of the University, 1583 .... 72 

PLATES 75 

INDEX {after Plates) 77 



LIST OF PLATES 

I. Names ' Graten ' and ' Spyrynck ' on printed waste. Described 
pp. 38, 43. 

II. Platonis Opera, 1515, bound by Godfrey, reduced (p. 40, no. 15). 

III. Heinfagel, tertia pars dictionarii, 151 7, bound by Godfrey, reduced 
(p. 41, no. 25). 

IV. Gravissimae . . . Italiae et GalHae Acad, censurae, 1530, bound by 
Godfrey (p. 43, no. 44). 

V. Quintilian, 1527, bound by Godfrey (p. 42, no. 43). 

VI. Titelmanni elucidatio in omnes epistolas, ^532, bound by Godfrey 
(p. 43, no. 46). 

VII. Alberti de re aedificatoria, 1513, &c., bound by Godfrey (p. 40, no. 18). 

VIII. Codex lustiniani, 1515, bound by Godfrey, reduced (p. 40, no. 17). 

IX. Ravisii Textoris officina, 1520, bound by Spierinck, reduced (p. 5°. 
no. 33). 

X. Valerii Max. Collectanea, 1510, bound by Spierinck, reduced (p. 49, 
no. 9). 

XI. Erasmus, de conscribendis epistolis, 1531, &c., bound by Spierinck 
(p. 51, no. 30). 

XII. De unitate ecclesiae conservanda, 1530, &c., bound by Spierinck 
(p. 50, no. 34). 

XIII. Antonini secunda pars historialis, 1506, bound by Spierinck, reduced 

(p. 49, no. 5). 

XIV. Revelationes S** Birgittae, 1531, bound by Spierinck, reduced 

(p. 51, no. 31). 

XV. Faber, Notae, 1536, bound by Spierinck with one of Siberch's rolls, 
reduced (p. 53, no. 43). 

XVI. Evangelia, &c., 1508, bound by Spierinck (p. 49, no. 6). 

XVII. Berthorius, Morale reductorium, 1515, bound by Spierinck, reduced 
(p. 53, no, 51). 

XVIII. S.Vincentii Ferrarii sermones, 15 13, bound by Spierinck (p. 53, no. 49). 

XIX. Paulinus, Epistolae et poemata, 1516, bound bySiberch (p. 61, no. i). 

XX. Valle commentarius, i533, bound by Siberch, reduced (p. 61, no. 6). 

XV 



XXI. Clichtoveus, de vita et moribus sacerdotum, 1519, bound by Siberch 
(p. 61, no. 4). 

XXII. Bullinger, de scripturae authoritate, 1538, bound by a later binder with 
one of Siberch's rolls (p. 60). 

XXIII. ' Arma Regia ' and mark used by Siberch in his printing (pp. S7> 5^)- 

XXIV. Letter of Petrus Kaetz to Jan van Siborch (p. 58). 

XXV. Printer's ' copy ' of Croke's introductiones in rudimenta Graeca (p. 54). 

XXVI. Rolls and stamps used by Garrett Godfrey. 

XXVIP- Rolls used by Nicholas Spierinck. 

XXVII^. Stamps used by Nicholas Spierinck. 

XXVIII. Rolls used by John Siberch. 



THE 

EARLIER STATIONERS AND BOOKBINDERS 

AND THE 

FIRST PRINTER OF CAMBRIDGE 

PART I 
TO THE END OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 

This essay falls naturally into two divisions : the first treating of the 
Stationarii or Stationers and Bookbinders to about the end of the fifteenth 
century, of whose work we do not, at present, know any example ; the 
other treating of the Stationers, Bookbinders, and the one Printer and Book- 
binder of the earlier part of the sixteenth century, of whom we have 
documentary evidence, and examples of their work. 

As this is the first attempt to secure a proper position for the Cambridge 
Binders in the history of English bookbinding in the early part of the sixteenth 
century, it is hoped that allowance will be made for its shortcomings, due to the 
present paucity of printed material from which information could be obtained. 

All available material is here collected and arranged chronologically, 
while other information is also given which it is hoped will be found of 
sufficient importance to justify its inclusion: and all documents have as far 
as possible been collated with the originals. 

1376. In the controversy between the University and the Archdeacon 
of Ely, with respect to jurisdiction, the Archdeacon claimed jurisdiction over 
the members of the University as well as over the inhabitants of the town. 
As the members of the University had hitherto been subject only to the 
jurisdiction of their Chancellor, tliey objected to this claim of the Arch- 
deacon of Ely, which was referred to the arbitration of Hugh de Balsham, 
Bishop of Ely. And in his Decision, dated 1276 (see Thos. Fuller's History 
of the University of Cambridge, edited by M. Prickett and T. Wright, 1840, 
p. 48), we have the earliest reference to the Stationers. 

The section relating to them is : — 

Et quia in statut' Vniuersitatis eiusdem inter alia continetur, quod familia 
scolaiium, scriptores et alii officia ad vsum scolarium tantum deputata exer- 
centes, eadem immunitate et libertate gaudeant qua et scolares, vt coram 

I B 



archidiacono non respondeant sicuti nee scolares qui sunt eorum domini : 
Hoc ita tenore praesencium declaramus, quod in hoc casu nomine familie 
solummodo volumus contineri mancipia scolarium in domibus cum eis com- 
morancia dum personaliter deseruiunt scolaribus antedictis. Item nomine 
scriptorum et aliorum ofBcia ad vsum scolarium tantum deputata exercencium, 
volumus intelligi de scriptoribus, Uluminatoribus, et stacionariis qui tantum 
deseruiunt scolaribus, quod sub Cancellario respondeant, vxores tamen eorum 
super crimine adulterii vel alio cuius cognicio et correccio ad archidiaconum 
spectat in casu consimili in personis aliis sibi subditorum difFamate, et reliqua 
eorum familia ad officium scolarium specialiter non deputata, archidiacono 
sint subiecti in omnibus et singulis sicut ceteri alii laici municipii Cantabrigie 
et totius nostre dyocesis Elyensis. 

The following translation of this 'passage is taken mainly from C. H. 
Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, vol. i. p. ^6 ; cp. also J. Heywood's Early 
Cambridge Statutes, 1855, i. p. i : — 

. . . And whereas, in the statutes of the same University, among other things, 
it is contained that the household servants of the scholars, the writers and others, 
who exercise offices that are peculiarly assigned to the use of the scholars, shall 
enjoy the same exemptions and liberties as the scholars, so as not to answer 
before the Archdeacon, as neither do the scholars who are their masters : We 
declare this according to the intent of these presents that in this case under 
the term household servants, we wish to be included only the scholars' servants 
residing in houses with them, whilst they serve the aforesaid scholars in 
person. Also the term writers and others, who exercise offices peculiarly 
assigned to the use of the scholars, we wish that it be understood of 
writers, illuminators, and stationers, who serve the scholars only, and that they 
must answer before the Chancellor; but their wives, being under the charge 
of adultery or any other crime, the cognizance and correction of which pertains 
to the Archdeacon in similar cases concerning other persons under his 
jurisdiction, and the rest of their family, not especially deputed to the 
service of the scholars, shall be under the Archdeacon's jurisdiction in all 
and everything, like other lay-persons of the town of Cambridge and our 
diocese of Ely. 

It will be seen by this that writers, illuminators, and stationers were, 
naturally enough perhaps, from the earliest time under the protection of the 
University, equally with the students, and subject only to the authority of 
the Chancellor. This arrangement was somewhat similar to that existing in 
the various monasteries which had their own writers, illuminators, and binders. 
(See Catalogues of Durham Cathedral Library : Surtees Society, 1838, p. xxiv.) 

Dr. Thomas Fuller, in a note {circa 1655) to the text of this Decision, 
explains various words therein used (Fuller's Cambridge, p. 52) : — 

Scriptores, Avriters well known to all. 

Illuminatores, such as gave light and lustre to manuscripts and capital 
letters therein, essential ornaments in that age, men then being more pleased 
with babies in books than children are. 



Stationarii, publicly avouching the sale of staple-books in standing shops 
(whence they have their names) as opposite to such circumforanean pedlers 
(ancestors to our modern Mercuries and hawkers) which secretly vend prohibited 
books. 

The binders are not mentioned in this Decision, but they are specially 
named, in the following century, in the document dated Feb. 3, 1355. 

In 1350 we first meet with a ' stationarius of the University' — John Hardy. 
He is mentioned in the Minutes of the Corpus Christi Gild, and in some existing 
deeds connected with that Gild. {Cambridge Gild Records, edited by M. Bateson : 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 1903, p. 29.) 

In the Minutes, under 1350 (p. 38), is an entry of payment: — ^Johanni 
Hardy pro turbis. xiijrf. 

Two other undated entries (pp. 39, 33), probably of about the same date, 
are : — 

Agnes uxor lohannis Hardy intrauit fraternitatem per finem xl.if. et v'yd. pro cera. 
Matilda filia lohannis Hard istacionarii intrauit fraternitatem per finem xl. d. et 

vj. d. pro cera. 

He was procurator of the Gild in 1351, and apparently continued in that 
office for a few years, according to some entries in the Minutes of the Gild during 
1351-4. {Cambridge Gilds, pp. 38-40, 44, 46, 47, 49, 50, ^i^, 136, 140, 141.) One of 
these entries (1351) is worth quoting: — 

Dominus Rogerus Attetownshend de Wilbi et lohannes frater eius senior, Roger and his family 
Walterus et Alicia pater et mater predicti domini Roggeri, lohannes frater eius 

iunior et Willelmus nepos predicti Rogeri intrauerunt fraternitatem et dederunt enter the Gild, transferring 
elemosine xl. j. [et iij.j. pro cera] quos lohannes Hardy stacionarius vniuersitatis tothe Gild a payment of 43^. 
Cantebrigie, procurator predicte Gilde [Corporis Christi Cantabrigie] recepit pro forium.° " '' °^ ^ ^° 
quodam portiforio predicto Rogero faciendo. Et sic quietum clamauit pro se et 
executoribus suis predictum lohannem de predicta conuencione vt dicte Gilde 
dictam pecuniam solueret. [Et hoc assignauit] die Mercurii proxima ante festum 
sancti lohannis baptiste anno dominiM™" ccc"° 1"° j° in domo predicti Rogeri apud 
Wyleby ; [et venit predictus dominus Rogerus in festo exaltacionis Sancte Crucis] 
et ratificauit omnia supradicta Willelmo H[orwood] et comitiue dicte Gilde ^- 

The following deed exists in the Treasury of Corpus Christi College. The 
text and translation are printed here from Miss Bateson's work (p. 139): — 

March 26, 1353. 

Sachent totes gentz qe les Aldereman et freres de la gilde [de] nostre seigneur 
Jhesu Cryst et sa douce miere ount ordyneez et mys en lour lieu Maistre Johan 
Hardy lour procuratour a purseure lors besoignes en chescun lieu, eaunz ferm et 
estable ceo qe lavaunt dit Maistre Johan ordeynera et ferra en lour besoignes 
avantditz selonc resoun. En tesmoniaunce de quele chose pur ceo qe les sealz 
des les avant ditz Alderman et freres sont desconuz, William Horwode Maire de 
Cantebrigg' al especial prieredes les avantditz Alderman et freres cy aad mys le seal 
de soun Mairealtee. Donee a Cantebrigg' lendemayn del Annunciacion de nostre 
dame laan de nostre seigneur le Roy Edward tierce apres la conquest vynt et sisme. 

^ The passages in brackets are added above the line. 

3 Ba 



The King to Richard ofKel- 
leshnlle and the other Jus- 
tices of Cambridge. 
The Ch ancellor of Cambridge 
has petitioned us saying that 
by the privileges of the Uni- 
versity he has always been 
accustomed to inquire into 
and punish all crimes (felony 
and mayheim excepted) com- 
mitted in that town by sta- 
tioners, writers, bookbinders, 
and illuminators — common 
servants of the University and 
students. 



Yet latelycertain indictments, 
prosecuted by evil wishers, 
envious of the privileges of 
the University, against per- 
sons exercising these trades, 



Translation :— Know all men that the Alderman and brethren of the gild of 
our Lord Jesus Christ and His sweet Mother have ordained and set m their stead 
Master John Hardy their apparitor to prosecute their business in every place, 
making firm and stable that which the aforesaid Master John may ordain and do 
in their business aforesaid according to reason. In witness whereof, because the 
seals of the aforesaid Alderman and brethren are not known, William Horwood 
Mayor of Cambridge at the special prayer of the aforesaid Alderman and brethren 
here has set the seal of his mayoralty. Given at Cambridge on the morrow of 
the Annunciation of our Lady in the twenty-sixth year of our lord King Edward, 
the Third after the Conquest. 

The seal which was affixed to this deed is supposed to be the earliest known 
example of the official seal of the Mayor of Cambridge, and has been described 
and illustrated by Mr. T. D. Atkinson. {Proceedings of Cavibridge Antiquarian 
Society, vol. x. 1 27.) 

According to records of other Cambridge Gilds of contemporary date, the 
Apparitor was chosen yearly, and whilst in office was free of the yearly amount 
paid by members. If he refused the office he had to pay y. 4<^- to the common 
chest (Bateson, pp. 81, 98, 99). The Apparitor received a fee of id. from each 
brother or unmarried sister of the Gild (p. 81), and as a part of his duties had to 
summon the members to the various meetings (p. 79). 

Under the date 1353, 3 Feb. (a8 Edward III), amongst the Close Rolls 
(Close Roll (Chancery) No. 199, mem. 30, and Arundel MS. 53, f. 93), is a 
document, dated from Colchester, in which the 'Justices assigned for the 
preservation of peace in the County of Cambridge are ordered to supersede all 
processes on indictments made before them against stationers, writers of books, 
binders, and illuminators in the University of Cambridge. Cognizance of such 
cases belonging to the Chancellor of the University.' (Cooper's Annals, i. 104.) 

The document is as follows : — 

Rex dilectis et fidelibus suis Ricardo de Kelleshulle et sociis suis lusticiariis 
ad pacem nostram in Comitatu Cantebrigie conseruandam assignatis salutem. 
Supplicauit nobis dilectus nobis in Christo Cancellarius vniuersitatis Cante- 
brigie pro.se et Magistris et scolaribus eiusdem uniuersitatis, vt cum a toto 
tempore quo vniuersitas ilia ibidem extitit ordinata et inchoata, Cancellarij 
dicte vniuersitatis qui pro tempore fuerunt vel eorum loca tenentes iuxta 
priuilegia et libertates suas, cogniciones quorumcunque placitorum de trans- 
gressionibus et excessibus, feloniam vel mahemium non tangentibus, infra 
dictam villam per stacionarios, scriptores, librorum ligatores et illuminatores 
ibidem continue morantes, qui communes seruitores dicte vniuersitatis et 
studencium in eadem (licet vicissim per alios conducti fuerint) dicuntur et repu- 
tantur, factis, et emergentibus, absque impedimento habuerunt hucusque, dictique 
Cancellarij et eorum loca tenentes quociens eis visum fuerit expedire inquisiciones 
de transgressionibus et excessibus huiusmodi facere et culpabiles in ea parte 
iuxta eorum discreciones et transgressorum demerita punire consueuerunt, pre- 
textu tamen quorundam indictamentorum coram vobis ad prosecucionem aliquorum 
maliuolorum qui dictis vniuersitati et studentibus in ea, ac eorum inuident, et 



libertates suas infringere machinantur factorum et continencium huiusmodi 

stacionarios, scriptores, ligatores librorum et illuminatores in dicta villa tunc 

morantes diuersos excessus in excercicio artificiorum suorum fecisse, quorum 

quidem excessuum cognicio et punicio (si facti forent) ad prefatum nunc whose pnnishment belongs 

Cancellarium pertinere deberent : aliqui de eisdem stacionariis, scriptoribus, t° *« Chancellor 

librorum ligatoribus et illuminatoribus de mandato uestro arestantur et diuer- have been heard by yon, and 

simode grauantur et aliqui eorum se a dicta villa ex hac causa retraxerunt, these persons arrested and 

aliquique eorum se inde retrahere conantur, in ipsorum Cancellarij, Magistrorum ^"'°' ^ 

et Scolarium graue dampnum et priuilegiorum et libertatum ac consuetudinum to the harm of the said pri- 

predictorum eneruacionem manifestam, velimus super premissis remedium apponi vileges of the University. 

iubere Et quia per aliquos quibus fidem credulam adhibemus plene sumus And, becanse we wish its 

informati premissa veritatem continere, volentes tranquillitati et quieti dictorum P^^ce and well-being to con- 

studencium et huiusmodi seruientium suorum quatenus commode poterimus ™°*' 

prouidere, priuilegiaque ac libertates et consuetudines vniuersitatis supradicte 

inuiolabiliter obseruari, vobis mandamus quod quibuscunque processibus super We order you in all snch 

indictamentis factis coram vobis de aliquibus transgressionibus aut excessibus, qui ^''ses (felony and mayheim 

feloniam vel mahemium non tangunt, et qui infra villam predictam et suburbia ^^'^^^ ^ ' 

eiusdem per predictos stacionarios, scriptores, librorum ligatores, et illuminatores 

prefatis scolaribus sic communiter deseruientes et solitos deseruire, fieri pre- 

tenduntur vel ex nunc dum huiusmodi artificiis et laboribus ibidem intenderint to leavethe judgement thereof 

fieri continget coram vobis inchoatis vlterius faciendum omnino supersedeatis ex *° ^'^^ Chancellor or his de- 

causa supradicta prefatum Cancellarium per se vel locum suum tenentem cog- ^" '^^' 

niciones huiusmodi transgressionum et excessuum si qui facti fuerint habere et who shall have full liberty 

puniciones eorundem facere absque impediniento permittentes, prout a tempore '° punish the offenders. 

predicto semper hucusque racionabiliter fieri consueuit. Teste Rege apud 

Colcestriam tercio die Februarii anno regni nostri Anglie xxviij. regni vero nostri 

Francie xv°. Per consilium. 

About 1384 it appears that books intended for use in the University were 
submitted to the Chancellor and Doctors, with a view to the detection of here- 
tical opinions, and that such works as were found objectionable in this respect 
were burnt before the University. (Cooper's Annals, i. 128.) 

In 139I (17 Richard II), in the Parliament which began on the fifteenth day 
of Hilary term, the Chancellor and scholars presented a petition, stating that a 
controversy had arisen because their charter did not expressly declare what persons 
shall be adjudged and held for servants of scholars of the University. To prevent 
further controversy they ask that it might be declared and adjudged that stationers 
and bookbinders were scholars' servants in the like manner as was contained in 
the charter of the Chancellor and scholars of Oxford. (Cooper's Annals, i. 141.) 

A nostre tres redoute Seigneur le Roy et a son tres sage Conseill de cest pre- The Chancellorand Scholars 

sent Parlement supplient humblement vos povrez orators les Chaunceller et ?^,** University of Cam- 

Escolers de I'Universite de Cantebrigg, qe come entre autre libertees et franchi- hu Cound'nn°Pariiament^" 
sez a les ditz suppliantz per nostre dit Seigneur le Roy grauntez lour soit graunte, 
qe le Chaunceller du dit Universite, et ses successors et lieutenantz, eient coni- 

saunce devant eux mesmes de toutz maneres plees personeles, et contractes faitz thatsincehehasgrantedthem 

deinz la dit Universite, et les Suburbes de ycelle, ou Meistre, Scoler, ou servant icholars!°schokrs' sTrvantsi 

de Scoler, ou commune Ministre del dite Universite est un des parties, forspris or common ministers of the 



University (except in cases of mort et maiheym ; et ou voz ditz suppliantz se doutent q'en temps a venir con- 
death and mayheim), troversie pourra vraisemblablement sourdre et avenir, a cause q'il n'est expresse- 
arise as'to who are^servants?' "i^nt declare el dite chartre queux persones seront adjuggez et tenuz pour servantz 
That he would be pleased to d'Escolers del dite Universitie, et queux nemy. Qe please a nostre dit Seigneur 
declare that the Stationers and le Roy et a son Conseill avoir consideration a la controversie et debat qe legere- 
L°d othCTrare's'i'i^Stl^orthe "^^"*^ pourroient avenir a cause del dite generalte des ditz paroles, et sur ceo 
Scholars to the same extent declarer en cest present Parlement, qe Statiners et Bokebynders del dit Universite, 
that they are so named in the et autres, soient nomez, tenuz, et adjuggez seruantz d'Escolers en tiel et mesme 
Charter ofthe Chancellor and le maner come est contenuz en la Chartre del Chaunceller et Escolers d'Oxenford 

Scholars of Oxford. ,. , , , i -i^- ^ ^ • ^ j j-^ ^ 

en tiel cas, et ce a la reverence de Dieu, et pees et quiete de vos ditz orators en 

temps a venir, en oevre de charite. {Rotuli Parliamentorum, iii. ^2S-) 

This petition was evidently left unanswered, (Cooper's Annals, i. 141.) 

140I. At the Convocation of the Clergy of the province of Canterbury, 
held at St. Paul's, in London, on the 14th of January, 140I, a series of consti- 
tutions were enacted for the suppression of Lollardism. And amongst other 
things it was ordained that no book or tract compiled by John Wiclif, or by any 
one else in his time or since, or to be compiled hereafter, should be read or taught 
in the schools, hostels, or other places within the province, unless it should first 
be examined by the Universities of Oxford or Cambridge, or at least by twelve 
persons to be elected by each of these bodies, and afterward expressly approved 
of by the Archbishop or his successors. That when approved, the book should 
be delivered, in the name and by the authority of the University, to the stationers 
to be copied : and a faithful collation being made, the original should be deposited 
in the chest of the University, there to remain for ever. (Cooper's Annals, i. 15a, 
from Wilkins's Concilia, iii. 316.) 

The ' Barnwell Process ' of 1430, an inquiry into certain privileges claimed 
by the University, decided that transcribers, illuminators, bookbinders, and 
stationers have been, and are wont and ought to be, — as well by ancient usage 
from time immemorial undisturbedly exercised, as by concession of the Apostolic 
see, — the persons belong and are subject to the ecclesiastical and spiritual jurisdic- 
tion of the Chancellor of the University for the time being. 

The section of the Process runs thus {Registry of the University of 
Cambridge, Box A, no. 18) : — 

3. Item articulor ; et probare intendo ego procurator predictus quod omnes 
et singuli scolares seu Clerici in sacris vel minoribus ordinibus constituti, Curati et 
non Curati, ad universitatem Cantabrigie gracia studii confluentes tarn seculares 
quam regulares, exempti et non exempti, cuiuscunque status, gradus, condicionis, 
ordinis, vel dignitatis fuerint, quamdiu in universitate predicta expectantes et 
ut studentes existunt, eorum etiam familiares ac eiusdem universitatis ministri 
communes, necnon scriptores, illuminatores, ligatoresque librorum, atque stacio- 
narii, fuerunt et sunt assolentque et esse debent tarn ex antiqua consuetudine per 
tempus cuius contrarii memoria hominum non existit pacifice usitata, quam ex 
concessione Apostolica, de et sub iurisdiccione ecclesiastica et spirituali cancel- 
larii universitatis predicte pro tempore existentis. 

6 



From the Old Statutes of the University (printed in Docnmcnis relating to 
the University and Colleges of Cambridge, 185a, vol. i. 330, 527, 409) we get the 
following information : — 

§ 34: Contra fere II tes arcus aut halistas infra municipiuni. 
Statutum est in plena congregacione regencium et nonregencium vniuersitatis 
Cantebrigie vltimo die Maii anno Domini millesimo CCCCmo LXmo nono, quod 
nullus maglster, sen scolaris, seruiens scolaris, scriptor vel stacionarius contra 
tranquillitatem et paceni domini regis et vniuersitatis extra locum seu mansum 
suum arcum et sagittas, balistam vel baliste tela, die vel nocte, insurgendo, inua- 
dendo, insultando contra aliquem vel aliquos scolarem vel scolares infra villam 
CanteJjrigie vel in suburbiis eiusdem commorantes, seu infra libertates vniuersi- 
tatis Cantebrigiensis existentes per se vel per quoscunque sibi faventes vel 
adherentes portet, gerat, seu utatur, nee quouis modo ad illud maleficium aliquem 
vel aliquos procurct, sub pena bannicionis perpetue ipso facto, si super hoc 
legitime convincatur. Licebit tamen cancellario et eius locum tenenti licenciam 
dare scolaribus et eorum seruientibus propter bonum pacis et privilegiorum 
vniuersitatis defensionem huiusmodi arcus et balistas gerere et uti, hoc statuto 
non obstante. Et, ne huiusmodi statuti scolaris aliquis seruiensue scolaris preten- 
dat ignoranciam, vlterius statucndo volumus quod hoc statutum in singulis scolis 
annuatim integralitcr perlegatur. 

§ ZZ- •^'' i'ldieiis et foro scolarium compeienti. 
Contra scolares si quis causam habeat ct scolaris contra aliquem, dummodo 
sit de municipio, do contractu vel quasi, seu de maleficio vel quasi, coram 
cancellario vel eius commissario tractetur causa et debite terminetur infra 
triduum, si commode possit quoquo modo, nisi per legitimam causam a com- 
missario ad cancellarium vel a cancellario ad vniucrsitatem [erasure] gradatim 
dcferatur, vel nisi talis sit causa que pro aliqua sui parte presenciam cxigat 
vniuersitatis, illis causis dumtaxat exceptis, que ad coronam regiam vel ad forum 
laicale vsque adco pertinere dinoscuntur, quod per nullam cancellarii vel 
vniuersitatis iurisdictionem licit^ valeant cxpediri. Ceterum domesticam sco- 
larium familiam cum scriptoribus eorundem et aliis eorum officiis in similibus 
deputatis simili volumus in hac parte immunitatis iure censeri '. 

§ 183. {De cistis vniuersitatis^.) 
Clamorem iusttcie audiuimus conquerentis quomodo ciste conscriptos per 
patres fundatc dampnum non modicum ct ruinam omnes et singule paciuntur per 
maiorum nostrorum desidiam, custodum negligenciam et stacionariorum astuciam, 
dolum fraudcm et infidelitatem. Sagaciter feliciterque, anno Domini millesimo 
cccc. octogcsimo nono, secundo die mensis lunii, dampnum istud atque 
ruinam videns ac intuens pre ceteris IClizabet Clere, inter multiplicia sue 
caritatis opera, diuina quadam ut creditur prouidencia, sua ex liberalitate 
ducentas marcas donauit ad cistarum reparacionem : cum qua quidem summa 
octo ciste videlicet Nele, Sancte Trinitatis, Darclyngeton, Byllyngeforthe, Exetyr, 
Lynke, Sancti lohannis, et Fenn in pristinum statum earundem fundacionum 
perfccte sunt restaurate et redintegrate : Ne igitur consimilis occasio dampni 

' OU Proi tor's Bo.'i; fo. 24 <>. 

° For p.irticuhirs of these Chests see Fuller's Citml>ri,fj;i; 130, 142 ; Heywood's Early 
Camhitis^v Statutes, i. 43, 1 14 ; Grace Book A, ed. Leathes, xlii, xliii. 

7 



et ruine cistis prenominatis (quod absit) infuturum contingat, nos Thomas 
Rotheram cancellarius vniuersitatis Cantabrigiensis et cetus unanimis regencium 
et non regencium statuimus et ordinamus quod statutum de auditoribus et 
custodibus districte obseruetur ac in iuramento date auditoribus et custo- 
dibus legatur in plena congregatione et omnino cum silencio audiatur. 
Item, quod quilibet liber impignoratus aut impignorandus, licet supplimentum 
nominetur, sit in se caucio, et quod in duplo verum valorem excedat. Item, 
quod custodes inscribant nomen ac cognomen impignorantis simul cum loco sue 
habitacionis. Item, quod in qualibet cista ad minus unus custodum sit aularis. 
Item quod nullus religiosus, cuiuscunque fuerit professionis aut ordinis, pecuniam 
mutuo recipiat de cistis vniuersitatis, nisi prius se ostendat habere potestatem 
impignorandi caucionem ac prestandi iuramentum sub sigillo conuentus vel 
prioris vel gardiani, quod penes custodes volumus remanere usque ad finalem 
redempcionem, hoc est quam diu pignus in cista remaneat. Item quod custodes 
cistarum sint stacionarii ^, Volumus insuper quod omnia ista statuta simul 
scribantur in qualibet cista cum statutis earundem^. 

lurent custodes cistarum quod nulli de cista, [ad] cuius custodiam sunt 
admissuri, pecuniam mutuo dabunt, nisi prius mutuum sub pignore accipiens iuret 
quod [ad] vsum suum dumtaxat illam pecuniam recipiet, et quod pignus impigno- 
randum sit suum, vel quod sibi a vero domino ad ilium effectum data sit potestas, 
nee alterius nomen ibi inseretur, nisi de cuius voluntate constet tarn dictis custo- 
dibus quam pecuniam mutuo recipienti, exceptis illis qui in villa presentes 
iniirmitate vel incarceracione legitime fuerint impediti, qui per procuratores, 
habentes in hac parte mandatum sufficiens, tam in animas proprias quam 
dominorum suorum, iuramentum prestent supradictum. 

The following summary of these sections is taken from Heywood's Early 
Cambridge Statutes, i. 1 8 j : — 

§ 24. That no master or scholar, scholar's servant, writer, or stationer, 
should by himself, or by means of any of his fautors or adherents, carry, bear, or 
use a bow and arrows, cross-bow, or cross-bow missiles, out of his lodging 
or house, for the purpose of exciting disturbances by day or night, and assailing 
or assaulting any person or persons, scholar or scholars in the town or suburbs, 
or the liberties of the University, nor in any manner procure any person or 
persons to commit this offence, under pain of perpetual banishment on his being 
lawfully convicted. But that it should be lawful for the Chancellor and his locum 
tenens, to give license to the scholars and their servants, to carry and use bows 
and cross-bows for peaceable purposes, and in defence of the University 
privileges, without incurring the penalty of this statute. 

§ 33. Trials of the scholars were to be treated and terminated within three 
days. . . And the domestic household of scholars, with their writers and others 
of them employed in similar offices, be held as enjoying like immunities as the 
scholars. 

§ 183. Of the University Chests. 

We have heard the cry of justice complaining that the chests founded by 

^ See also Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, i. 235. 

"^ So far from the Old Proctor's Book, fo. 48 b. The following sentence is in the Junior 
Proctor's Book, fo. 109 b. 

8 



our ancestors are all suffering no small damage and ruin, owing to the indolence 
of our superiors, the negligence of the keepers, and the knavery, craftiness, fraud, 
and unfaithfulness of the Stacionarii. In 1489, on the 2nd of June, Mistress 
Elizabeth Clere . . . gave two hundred marks for the repair of the chests, with 
which sum eight chests have been renewed and restored to the state they were 
in at the time of their foundation. Lest, therefore, a similar occasion of damage 
and ruin should happen in future ... we Thomas Rotherham, chancellor of the 
University of Cambridge, and the assembly of regents, &c., enact and ordain 
that the statute regarding the auditors and keepers of the chests be strictly 
observed. . . Also that any book placed or about to be plac-ed as security, although 
it be called a supplement, shall of itself be a caution, and must exceed the sum 
lent by double its value. . . Also, that one at least of the keepers of every chest 
shall be a member of a hall. . . Also, that the keepers of the chest be stacionarii. 

On the aand of June, 1456, the congregation of regents and non-regents 
made a statute containing a variety of regulations respecting the cautions received 
by the proctors, as sureties for the performance of scholastic exercises. It 
appears that, at this period, these cautions very frequently consisted, not of 
money, but of books and other goods. They were deposited in the new chapel, 
in a chest with three keys, one kept by the Chancellor or Vice-chancellor, and 
one by each ptpctor. (Cooper's Annals, i. 207.) 

For a space of one hundred years after Hardy, we do not meet with the 
names of any Stationarius, but from 1449 onwards we have a continuous 
succession of them, though the information may be sometimes rather scanty. 

It will be best first to define their position and duties as deduced by Mr. 
Stanley Leathes from entries in the Grace Book of the University (containing 
also the Proctors' accounts, &c.} which begins in 1454. {Grace Book A. 1454-88, 
edited by S. M. Leathes, 1897.) 

Stationeries: these persons occupied an anomalous position. They were 
not students, nor were they exactly servants or tradesmen. They were the 
official agents of the University for the sale of pledges, and official valuers of 
manuscripts and other valuables offered as security ^. They seem to have received 
an occasional fee from the chest. The analogy of other Universities suggests 
that they were bound to supply books to the students at a fixed tariff, and that 
they also acted as intermediaries between buyer and seller when a student had 
a book to sell. Like the servants and tradesmen dependent on the University 
they were under the University jurisdiction. {Grace Book A. xliii.) 

It was the duty of the Stationarius to value the books offered as security 
{Grace Book A. ix) for money advanced from the various University Chests to 
needy students. This money was lent, without interest, for one year only, ' and 
if not redeemed within that space of time, the pledges were sold for the benefit 

J In Matthew Wren's History of Pembroke College Library, 1617 (Hartshorne's Book Rarities, 
1829, p. 338), is an entry : — 

A° 1456. Sol. pro redemptione Avicennae \ Stationario quern impignoraverat M. loannes 
Marshall nobis ignotis i/. 6j. ^d. 

9 C 



of the chest ; the debtor receiving the balance of the value of his pledge when 
his debt had been paid.' {Grace Book A. xlii. See Appendix B (p. io) for lists 
and prices of books so sold.) The sale was managed by the Stationarius, who 
accounted to the University for the money received. 

At Oxford the stationarius (or virgifer) of the University was regularly 
appointed, and was generally employed to value the books of a scholar after 
death or sequestration. (Madan's Early Oxford Press, 266.) 

In the Proctors ' accounts for the years 1454 to 1488, four stationarii are 
mentioned : Gerard Waak, Waake or Wake, i45a-3 to i45'5-7 (•') ; 1°^" Ward, 
1468-9 to 1474-5 ; — Fydyon, or Fydyohn (Fitzjohn ?), circa 1481-a ; William 
Squire, 1483-3 to 1485-6. 

To these, and to make the list more complete to the end of the fifteenth 
century, must be added : Walter Hatley, 1484-5 to 1504 (?)• 

GERARD WAKE 
Wake was a binder, as is shown by two payments : — 

1454. [Grace Book A. a.] gerardo Wake pro reparacione librorum 

tempore M. loh. flemmyng et Edmundi Hampden ^ . . vijj. v\\)d. 

1456. [^. 8.] Gerardo Waak pro ligatura librorum .... \\\)d. 
One of his accounts was audited July 0,0, 1456-7 {Grace Book A. 10. See also 
p. 16). 

in deliberate magistro Towyn pro audito compoti Magistri lerardi Wake ijj. 
and earlier in the same account is 

pro expensis factis per ipsos procuratores pro regardo stacionario . ijj. 

But during 1449-50 in the Accounts of the Nunnery of St. Radegund, 
Cambridge (ed. A. Gray, 1898, p. 149), is a; payment 

Gerardo Wake pro ligatura unius libri vocati Sanctorum . . v]s. v\\}d. 

In 1479-80, perhaps after his death as Mr. Leathes suggests {Grace Book 
A. ix), occurs the following entry, which shows him owing money to several of 
the University Chests : — 

Recepta . . . ab alio scil. vno executorum M. Boston doctoris in theo- 

logia viijj. iiiji^. 

et pertinet ista summa vni ciste vniuersitatis nescitur tamen cui, et est pro de- 
bitoGerardi Waake quondam stacionarii qui multas pecuniasdebet diuersis 
cistis: inquiratur igitur de vna cui magis debet et tunc scil. summa 
tocius ciste augeatur pertinenter, et pertinenter minuatur summa debiti 
dicti Gerardi in eadem cista. {Grace Book A. 135.) 

This entry speaks of Wake zs formerly stationarius, and as the payment of 
viijj. iiijW. was made after the death of Dr. Boston it. was presumably for a debt 
^ Proctors, 1452-3 {Grace Book A. xxxv). 
10 



of some standing, so that Wake may have been dead, or have vacated office, as 
early as 1468-9, when we first meet with John Ward. If so, we can conjecture 
that there was only one Stationarius (as at Oxford), and that Gerard Wake 
was succeeded by John Ward, followed by Fidyon, then by William Squire, and 
finally by Walter Hatley, who enters into the sixteenth century. 

Probably Wake and Fydyon were the unfaithful stationarii referred to in 
the Ancient Statutes. (See pp. 7, 9.) 

During this period there are several entries in the Proctors' accounts of pay- 
ments made for books, and for repairing and chaining books, but as no name is 
given, the payment cannot be attached to any special stationarius. The prin- 
cipal of these entries are collected and printed in Appendix A. 

It may be mentioned that in the University Registry {Charters, &c., vol. i) 
is a Bond of £i\o of G. Wake and Thomas Lolleworth : — 

1435. 15 Nov. 14 H. VI. G. Wake et T. Lolleworth fishmonger de Cante- 
brigg' obligan' Ric. Cawdray clerico Cancellar. V. Cantebr. Joh. Holland et 
Ric. Coost clericis procuratoribus ejusd' sufs et successoribus suis in quadra- 
ginta libris soluendis in festo sci. michaelis archangeli prox' futuri. 

Doubtless some relationship existed between this Gerard Wake and our 
Stationarius. 

JOHN WARD, 1468-9 to 1474-5 

There are no entries from which we can decide whether Ward was a binder 
or not, and entries concerning binding, repairing, or chaining of books during his 
period are few. (See Appendix A, p. 18.) The first entry {Grace Book A. 71) 
concerning him is a payment : — 

1468-9. lohanni Stacionario vjj. viijV. 

From this and other entries it might seem that the University paid a yearly 
sum to the Stationarius. Another entry {A. 107) occurs : — 

1474-5. pro regardo lohannis Ward allocato sibi per vniuersitatem vjj. viijrf. 

But there are no entries of such a payment between these dates. No such 
payment was made to Wake. But William Squire, about ten years afterwards, 
had twice the sum — xiijj. iiij</. — paid to him for four continuous years. 

During 1474-5, the University received {A. 108) 'pro caucionibus venditis 
per lohannem Ward stacionarium v]li. vjj. xef.' ; and ' pro caucione Benet vendita 
que fuit in manibus loh. Ward xijj. viijrf.' 

FYDYON, or FYDYOHN (Fitzjohn?), 1481-a 
The place of this Stationarius is evidently here between John Ward and 
William Squire. The entries concerning him are few and not easy to understand. 
The first one is {A. 187) :— 

1483-4. Memorandum quod dictus lohannes boteler et M. W. gedge 

II c 2 



deliberauerunt duos predictos libros Magistro d. lynyng d. Martyn 
et Magistro Cosyn appreciatoribus omnium librorum inventorum m 
domo stacionarii fydyon. 

In 1488, under the heading of ' Pecunie deliberate ad fabricam ecclesie beate 
marie,' are the following entries [Grace Book B. 11) : — 

de bonis fydyohn stacionarii receptis in diebus magistri Morgan ' et aliorum 
procuratorum ut patet in registro antiquo extraxhimus a communi_ cista 
per (sic) reparacione singularum cistarum in decasu existencium xij"" '"• 

communi consensu vniuersitatis mutuo deliberauimus xij"" "• Magistro 
vicecancellario et doctoribus barleySse pro reparacione predictarum 
cistarum quas pecunias Wysott de bery soluet vniuersitati iterato pro 
tenement© fydyohn sibi vendito pro xij""" libris. 

The same year the Proctor enters : — recipemus de bonis fydyohn stacionarii per 

nos venditis xl</. 

From the first quoted entry this year, it would seem that 1481-a was the 
time when his delinquencies were found out. 

In 1492 is another entry [Grace Book B. 37) : — 

Recept' de Doctore Burgeyn in partem solucionis pro quadam domo 

in Buria pro debito ffydyam vendita etc xIj. 

As previously mentioned, Gerard Waake and Fydyon were the unfaithful 
stationarii referred to by the Ancient Statutes of the University. But in 
Fydyon's case we find that an inventory of his goods was made on behalf of 
the University, and the goods themselves afterwards sold, as also was his house. 

WILLIAM SQUIRE, 1482-3 to 1485-6 

For four continuous yfaits{Grace Book A. 171, 186, 198, aoa) this statio- 
narius received a yearly sum from the University, which, as I have pointed out, 
was just twice the amount paid to John Ward in 1468-9 and 1474-5. 

1483-3. W. Sqwyer pro feodo officii stacionarii . . , xiijj. iiij^. 

1483-4. pro officio stacionarii xiijj. \\\)d. 

1484-5. Wyllelmo Sqwyer pro officio stationarii . . . xiijj. iiijrf. 

1485-6. W. Squyer pro officio stacionarii .... xiijj. \\\)d. 

During this period payments were made for binding and repairing of books, 
for which see Appendix A. 

WALTER HATLEY, 1484-5 to 1504 (?) 

A binder, and also for a time Parish Clerk of the Church of St. Mary 
the Great. 

In 1495-6 was paid (B. 97) : — 

waltero hadley pro ligatura duorum librorum cum cathenis . . vj. 

^ Philip Morgan was one of the Proctors, 1481-2 (Grace Book A. xxxvi). 

la 



But in 1484-5 is an entry {A. 199) : — 

waltero pro ligacione vnius magni Hbri ...... ijj. 

which evidently belongs to Hatley. 

During 1497-8 a payment is made (B. iii) : — 

waltero hattley pro ligatura tabule in qua scripsit nomina bene- 

factorum ad fabricam Ecclesie beate marie .... iijj. 

and in 1500- 1 (B. 154, 158) : — 

Waltero battle pro ligacione librorum diuersorum in bibliotheca et 

reparacione eorundem et aliorum vs. 

waltero Hatle pro emendacione calendarii et priuilegfii pro mun- 
dacione viarum et cathenacione vnius libri cum glutinacione 
tabule mathematicalis ixd. 

In 1501-a {Grace Book B. 173) : — 

Waltero Hatley pro ligacione et chatenacione vnius libri in communi 

libraria xd. 

and 1503-4 {B. 194) :— 

waltero hatlay pro kalendario ijj. viijV. 

During 1 500-1 he is also mentioned as Parish Clerk of the Church of St. 
Mary the Great, and payments were made to him as such during this year and 
1502-3 {B. 159, 171, 173, 175, 185):— 

1500-1. Waltero Hatle clerico parochiali sancte marie pro missa in 

incepcione et die resumpcionis iiijd. 

parochi(a)li clerico ecclesie beate marie pro exequiis pro 

benefactoribus et pro exequiis elinore regine . . . viijV. 
Waltiro clerico parochiali ecclesie beate marie exequiis . iiij</. 
1501-a. pulsatori campane vniuersitatis et clerico parochiali ecclesie 

marie pro exequiis principis viijd. 

„ clerico parochiali ecclesie beate marie virginis pro orna- 

mentis in generali processione quando episcopus eliensis 

venit ad villam xxrf. 

„ clerico parochiali ecclesie beate marie pro vna missa . . ijd 

1503-3. waltero parochiali clerico ecclesie beate marie pro missis in 

die resumpcionis et inceptionis . .... vjd. 

In 1503 he was one of the persons named in the Indenture of Covenant 
between the University and Town to ' enjoy like privil^e of the said University, 
as Scollers shall doe.' His name appears there as Walterus Hatly. Amongst 
the other names is that of Garreit Stacioner (Cooper's Annals, i. 270). 

Being Parish Clerk of St. Mary's Church, he most probably lived in that 
parish, £is most of the succeeding stationers did also. And in the Parish book of 
the Church under 1504 {St. Marys Parish Book, edited by J. E. Foster, 1904, 

13 



jj 



» 



p. 8 ; S. Sandars, Historical & Architectural Notes on Great St. Mary's Church, 
1869, p. 50) there is a long inventory of articles in his custody. Amongst them 
is an interesting list of books ' in Ecclesia ' which I give here : — 

Two olde Missalez of vylem with Cootes ; a great olde Missale with 
Graylez noted in the same ; two olde graylez couered with Cotes ; two smale 
olde greylez ; a pistill booke ; twoo great antiphaners bownden with bolyonz ; 
a new antiphoner breuiate of the gifte of Maisterez Cook ; three olde smale 
antiphoners ; v processioneris olde ; two Emanuelles ; a Psalter olde with 
venites atte ende ; an olde Psalter with Dirigies in thende ; an olde legent ^ 
deuided in two parties. 

Other books in the same inventory (Foster, pp. i, 4, 5, 11 ; Sandars, pp. 45, 
47. 53) are:— 

Altare sancti Andree ; a Missale prynted of the Gifte of John Buttiler 
alias Barbour. Altare beate Marie Virginis ; a Masse booke prynted. Altare 
sancte laurencij ; a Messe booke. Altare sancte Trinitatis ; a Boke called a 
Manuell, a Masse book pertinens altari beate Marie, a Masse boke pertinens 
alteri Altari ... in the churche. 

Bookes Remayning in the kepyng of John Thirleby modo in Ecclesia ; 
a Masse booke olde longyng to Trinity alter ; a nother Masse booke olde with 
certeyn nourmentes of the chirche wreten in thende ; two olde portosis wreten 
in parchemyn ; an olde primer belongyug to Trinite Chapell with a Cheyne ; 
a primer belongyng to our lady Chapel with a Cheyne ; A Great Masse booke. 

It is worth noting here that in the Inventory of the Church Goods, 1305 
(Sandars, p. 43), the following books are mentioned : — 

Missale sufficiens, 3 Antiphonalia, i Legenda, 3 Gradualia, i Troparium, 
2 Psalteria, 2 Martyrologia, i Ordinale, i Manuale. 

These books have long disappeared ; probably some were parted with in 
1568, when the Churchwardens received : — 

of Mr. Cuthbert Stationer for all the Books at yt time being which 

were in numbre 13 small & great ^ xj. yj</. 

On the 2nd of January, 1508-9, when an inventory of the goods belonging 
to the Church was made and entered in the Parish book, there is no mention of 
Hatley, and the Jewelles, Sec, which were in his custody in 1504, are in the 
hands of a Robert hobbys ; and there being no entry of payments to him from 
the University after 1503-4, he probably died between 1504 and 1508. 

In 151 8 a John Hatley gave ijj. v]d. towards a collection ' for the Stoles in 
the Body of the churche' (Foster, p. 40). 

It must not be forgotten that Cambridge had at this time that important 

' We meet with the 'olde legent ' again in 1524 when Garrett Godfrey was paid ij^^. for 
'bynding' it; and in 1523 Godfrey was paid viijV. for 'bynding of a prosy ssyonary,' which 
may be one of the five in Hatley's charge. 

= St. Mary's Parish Book, 164 ; E. Venables, Annals of St. Mary's Church, 1836, 20. See 
also Cuthbert, p. 71, 

14 



mart for the sale of goods of various kinds, the celebrated Sturbridge Fair. For 
when, about 1487, the corporation of London made an Ordnance prohibiting the 
freemen of that city to go to any fair out of the city, with any manner of mer- 
chandise to sell or barter, it was repealed by an Act of Parliament, in the 
preamble of which (3 H. VII, cap. 9, 10: Statutes of the Realm, ii. 518) the 
Commons, in addressing the King, state that : — 

Ther be meny feyers for the comen Welle of your seid lege people as at 
Salusbury, Brystowe, Oxenforth, Cambrigge, Notyngham, Ely, Coventre, and at 
many other places, where lordes spirituall and temporall, abbotes, Prioures, 
Knyghtes, Squerys, Gentilmen, and your seid Comens of every Countrey, hath 
their comen resorte to by and purvey many thinges that be gode and profyt- 
able, as ornaments of holy Church, Chalies, bokes, vestementes, and other 
ornaments for holy Church aforseid, and also for howsold, as vytell for the time 
of Lent, and other Stuff, as Lynen Cloth, wolen Cloth, brasse, pewter, bedding, 
osmonde, Iren, Flax and Wax, and many other necessary thinges, the which 
myght not be forborne amonge your seid liege people. (Cooper's Annals, i. 233.) 

As late as 1735 there was in the Fair a small street called the Booksellers' 
Row. And it may be mentioned that in 1686 Mr. Millington, a book auctioneer 
of London, sold in Cook's Row, on the 8th of September, the library of James 
Chamberlain, a fellow of St. John's College. (Fairs, Past and Present, by 
C. Walford, 1883, p. 126.) 

If we summarize the position of the Stationers and Binders to the end of the 
fifteenth century, it does not appear that they were occupying an important 
position. 

From 1276, when we first meet with a reference to them — due to the special 
privileges belonging to the University, and the zealous watch kept by the 
Town upon those privileges, with the protection they afforded to questionable 
persons — down to 1454, we find them entirely under the protection of the 
University, enjoying the same privileges as the Scholars of the University and 
their servants, amenable only to the laws of the University and not to the 
authority of the Town. 

The books they had for sale had to be approved by the Chancellor and 
Doctors as being free from heretical opinions. 

But from 1454 we get an insight into their work, and we can trace the 
Stationarius, as he was called — who, perhaps, like his fellow workman at Oxford, 
was appointed by the University — from that date onwards. During this period 
it would appear from payments made to some of them that they received a 
yearly sum from the University : John Ward receiving vjj. viij^. ; increased to 
xiijj. ux)d. in the case of William Squire. 

From a payment made during 1476-7 {Grace Book A.iij): — 

Stacionario pro toga • xiijj. iiijrf. 

15 



it seems as if the University supplied the Stationarius with a gown as a 
distinctive mark of office. That the Stationarius wore such a garment is 
evident. Peter Breynans, early in the sixteenth century, bequeathed to Hen. 
Browne 'togam meam melioreni,* and iabout thirty years afterwards Garrett 
Godfrey bequeathed his ' fox-furred gown ' to Nicholas Pilgrim, his successor ; 
and Peter Bright in 1545 willed his ' gown furred ' to his brother. 

In addition to binding and repairing books, which also included the 
chaining of them, they were the keepers of the University Chest or Chests in 
which the Cautions were deposited. It is presumed that they valued these 
Cautions when they were kept. When necessary they sold the Cautions and 
accounted to the University for the amounts received. Their accounts were 
audited annually, wine, &c., being provided for the auditor at the expense of the 
University. 

In the section devoted to Gerard Wake, an example is given of the expense 
incurred at the auditing of his accounts. There are other entries, one of which 
might be connected with him {Grace Book A. 56, 57, 85) : — 

1466-7. pro vino in tempore auditus super stationarium . . . viijrf. 

„ alio tempore pro vino et Ceruisia in eodem audita . . xiij^. 

„ pro Ceruisia in tempore audicionis super stationarium. . iiij^. 
1470-1. pro vino et seruicio in compoto stacionarii facto in die sancti 

Dunstani (19 May ?) xjV. 

The last may belong to either Wake or Ward ; most likely to Ward. No 
other entries refer to the auditing, so that possibly the accounts of the Station- 
arius at other times were included in the general auditing of the University 
accounts. 

That the University did not monopolize the whole of the time of their 
Stationarius is shown by John Hardy (1351-4) being also an official in the Corpus 
Christi Gild, and by Walter Hatley, the last of the fifteenth-century stationers, 
who added to his work the post of Parish Clerk of the University Church of 
St. Mary the Great, and saw to the cleansing of the pavements leading to the 
University buildings. 

It will be noticed that, although the binders are quoted, there is no 
reference to any examples of their work. The causes which have led to this 
dearth of material have been plainly set forth by Dr. M. R. James in his 
interesting work. The Sources of Archbishop Parkers Collection of MSS. at 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (Camb. Ant. Soc, 1 899, pp. 3, 4). 

Among the Parker MSS. are some scanty relics of the Collection left in 1439 
by Thomas Markaunt, a Fellow of the college (see Dr. James's book, pp. 76-82). 
This bequest consisted of 76 volumes, and for upwards of a century they were 
preserved with great care, and under special conditions. Only three volumes 
now remain, two in the College Library, and one in the University Registry. 

16 



The Parker Collection has greatly suffered by nearly all the volumes being 
rebound at the end of the eighteenth century, by which evidence of identifica- 
tion has been irrecoverably lost, and with that all that might have been gleaned 
from the old bindings, fly-leaves, &c. In the libraries of Peterhouse ^ and the 
University equal havoc has been done. 

Dr. James speaks of the disappearance of the old libraries at Cambridge, and 
my remarks are condensed from his work. We have in print Catalogues of 
those of Corpus Christi^ Trinity HalF, King's*, Queens', St. Catharine's^ and the 
University'. Of the 330 books in the University Library in 1473, only 19 are 
known to exist. At Corpus, 3 out of 76, as previously stated ; at Queens', none ; 
at King's, i out of 176 ; at Trinity Hall, i ; at St. Catharine's, none out of about 
100 ; and, according to Leland's Collectanea, Clare possessed a large number 
of books which cannot now be found. 

For this state of affairs Dr. James says we have to thank the Commissioners 
appointed under Edward VI to reform the Universities. Something of their 
methods of procedure may be learnt from Mr. Macray's Annals of the Bodleian 
Library. 

* Catalogue of the MSS. in the Library of Peterhouse, by M. R. James, 1899. 

' Catalogus Librorum MSS. guos Collegia Corp. Chr. legavit M. Parker, Archiepiscopus 
Cantuar. a J. Nasmith, Camb. 1777. 

* Catalogue of Books given to Trinity Hall by the Founder. Camb. Ant. Soc. Commu- 
nications, ii. 73. 

* Catalogue of MSS. in the Library of King's College, by M. R. James, 1895. 

° Catalogue of the Original Library of St. Catharine's Hall, 1475, edited by G. E. Corrie. 
Camb. Ant. Soc, 1840. 

' Two Lists of Books in the University Library, circa 1424 and 1473, by Hen. Bradshaw. 
Camb. Ant. Soc. Communications, 1862, ii. 239 : and in Hen. Bradshaw's Collected Papers, 
1889, p. 16. 



17 



APPENDIX A 

PRICES 

The following entries of payments concerning binding, repairing, and 
chaining of books do not give the name of the person to whom the payment 
was made, and they are collected together here as illustrations of prices, 
supplementing those given under the sections devoted to the several Stationarii. 
And to these I have attached some bills showing expense of book-making at 
this period, which I think sufficiently interesting to be included in this Appendix. 

14^4 [Grace Book A. 2}. pro libro registri . • .• ^ ' • ' .'J"^" 
pro reparacione aliorum librorum et superscripcione . . ixd. 
1455-6 [A. 7]. pro libro in quo inscribuntur testamenta scplarium dis- 
■ cedencium et pro litera missa cancellario et Magistro Wolflet 

in negociis vniuersitatis x</. 

1456-7 [A. 10]. pro emendacione cathenarum libri procuratoris . . riijy. 
pro cathenacione librorum in communi libraria . . . xiiijV. 

1457-8 [A. 13]. in chatenis pro libro procuratoris mjd. 

1458-9 [A. 18]. pro coopertura vnius biblie in duobus voluminibus . xxrf. 

1461-2 [A. 34]. pro cathenis librarie vniuersitatis viijrf. 

1462-3 [A. 37]. pro ligacione duorum librorum communis libraria .Xxiijrf. 

cathenacione libri medicinalis . jd. 

1467-8 [A. 65, 66]. pro Cathenis et ligacione libri .... ijj. xd. 

stacionario pro reparacione libri i^jj. v'lijd. 

1470-1 [A. 84]. pro quatuordecim cathenis pro libris . . . iiijj. viijV, 
pro coopertoriis quatuordecim librorum .... xs. v}d. 

pro cathenacione et claspys pro eisdem .... iijj. iiij^. 

pro emendacione libri xx^. 

pro cathenacione xxv librorum .... i\]s.xd. 

tradidimus quibusdam laborantibus circa ordinem et imposi- 

cionem librorum in libraria v']d. 

tradidi laborantibus pro reparacione librorum in libraria . m]d. 
1478-9 \A. 129]. pro ligacione libri senioris procuratoris et pro clauis 

deauratis ijj. m]d. 

1478-9 [A. 130]. pro tribus catenis solutum M. tesdall pro libro senioris 

procuratoris iijj. 

pro duabus catenis pro eodem libro solutum Roberto Nelson . ijj. ijW> 
solutum M. Nandyke pro vna catena pro eodem libro . . iiijrf. 

pro clauis deauratis pro libro cancellarii viijV. 

pro cornubus pro eisdem libris iijV. 

solutum pro duodecim catenis pro libris domini (cancellarii) et 

pro alio libro in magna libraria catenate. . . . iijj. 
pro cathenacione librorum domini cancellarii .... xijV. 

18 



1476-7 \A. 117' 
1477-8 [A. 124 



1479-80 [Grace Book A. 137], pro cathenacione 3 voluminum et emenda- 

cione eorundem vj. mid. 

;48,o-i \A. 146]. pro cathenis et cathenacione iij librorum . . . ijj. 
1483-4 \A. 186, 187]. pro emendacione libri procuratoris . . . i]d. 
pro ligacione trium magnorum librorum in libraria vniuersitatls 

soil, lire et duorum iuris viijj. m]d. 

pro scriptura vnius indenture et pro intitulacione viginti librorum 
quos dominus Cancellarius dedit vniuersitati quando hie 

vltimo aderat v]d. 

solutum Hyldyrston vj*° die octobris pro nouis cathenis pro 
libro procuratorum et pro emendacione eiusdem libri alio 

tempore xaf. 

1484-5 \A. 199]. to floryse pro cathenacione librorum .... viij<f. 
1487-8 [A. 219, aao]. pro cathenacione trium librorum pertinencium 

vniuersitati vjrf. 

pro ligacione vnius libri decretalium xvjrf. 

pro cathenacione librorum trium domini cancellarii . . . xij^. 
pro clasuris librorum in libraria ...... viijj. 

pro cathenacione librorum . xrf. 

pro cathenis pro libris statutorum xiiijV. 

1488 [B. 11]. pro ligatura ix librorum communis librarie . . xiiijj. vjrf. 

1489 \B. aa]. cathenacione vnius libri v]d. 

pro ligatura vnius libri et eiusdem cathenacione et alterius libri 

cathenacione Tixd. 

1489 \B. 23]. pro vigesies duodecim paribus signaculorum pro libris in 

libraria i]li. ys. iiijaf. 

149a \B. 43, 44]. pro cathenacione duorum librorum .... iiij^. 

pro duabus cathenis pro eisdem \]d. 

pro Cathenacione et Cornu libri a magistro Dpctore ffyrby 

vniuersitati legati iij*/. 

pro emendacione librorum procuratorum et pro signaculo . n]d. 

149 a [i5. 50]. pro cathenacione vnius libri quem dedit archiepiscopus 

eboracensis cum scriptura duorum librorum . . . ■x.d. 
pro emendacione libri \]d. 

1493 \B. 6a]. pro clausuris duodecim librorum cathenatorum in communi 

libraria ex dono Magistri W. Tornour .... xviij^. 

1494 \JB. 69]. pro ligacione dictorum librorum .... v]s. viij^. 
1498-9 [.5. 120]. pro cathenacione trium librorum iijW. 

We can come to no definite conclusion as to prices charged for binding 
without knowing the size, or the number of the books bound, which particulars 
are not generally given. During 1483-4, three large books are bound for 8j. 4^. ; 
Hatley in 1485-6 bound one large book for aj., which seems to be the price paid 
for a folio at this time. In 1488 nine books, presumably not folios, were bound 
for 14s. 6d., and in 1489 binding one book and chaining, and chaining another, 
cost IS. 8d. Chains for the books appear to cost from 2d. to 4d. each, for 14 of 

19 D 2 



them, X470-1, cost 4s. M. Chaining of these and clasps cost y. ^d. and 
' pro coopertoriis/ \os. 6d. For repairing or mending books prices vary ; in 
149a one book cost 2d. ; in 1454 some books ' et pro superscriptione,' ^d. For 
fastenings of twelve chained books in the Library, lid. is paid. 

I mention that as. seemed to be the price paid for binding a folio volume. 
To support this statement I have extracted from Dr. M. R. James's Catalogue 
of MSS. at Peterkouse, Cambridge, six valuable accounts of prices paid in the 
fifteenth century. All of these books were given to the College, with others, by 
a Mr. Dyngley, of whom I can find no particulars, except the records of two 
books deposited by one of the same name as 'Cautions' (see Appendix C 
under 1388 and 1436) which are also in Peterhouse Library. These may have 
been bound at Cambridge. The binding is white skin over boards, with clasps. 

Ambrosii Hexaemeron, Sr'c. Vellum, 11 x 8, ff 01,14, double columns of 44 lines. 
Fifteenth century. (No. iio, p. 138.) 

Pro pergamo viz. 27 quat. precium quaterni {iid. Summa . . vij. ixd. 
„ scriptura eorundem viz. xvi^. pro quaterno. Summa . . xxxvij. 

„ luminacione vmd. 

„ ligacione j,-j, 

, Summa xlvj. Wnd. 
S. Ambrosius in Psalm, cxiiii, Sfc. Vellum, iif x8i,fif 318 + 16, double columns 
of 44 lines. Fifteenth century. (No. 1 14, p. i ^i^^ 

Pro pergameno viz. 37 quaterni et 6 fo. viz. pro quaterno nxd. Summa vij. ixrf. 
„ scriptura eorundem viz. xvia?. pro quaterno. Summa . . xxxvij. 

„ luminacione yi^_ 

„ ligacione jij' 

Summa xlvj. iii^, 
Augustinus de Verbis Domini, ^-c. Vellum, ii^ x8i, ff 360, double columns of 
44 lines. Fifteenth century. (No. 143, p. 169.) 

Pro pergameno 2,2, quaternorum viiij. %d. 

„ scriptura eorundem viz. pro quolibet quaterno xvjd. Summa xliiiij! 

„ luminacione xi\d. 

„ ligacione '. . '. iis. 

Summa Ivs. iijd. 
Augustinus super lohannem. Vellum, 11 § x 8^, ff 396, double columns of 44 lines. 
Fifteenth century. (No. 154, p. 182.) 

Propargameno yj;jj_ 

» scriptura xliij. viiirf. 

„ luminacione ^j^ 

„ ligacione •••.! 1 !."'.*! jij] 
5. Augustini quaedam. Vellum, iiix8i, ff 350, double columns of -Jgand 44 
lines. Fifteenth century. (No. 193, p. 336.) 

Pro pergameno viz. 29 quat. pro quolibet quat. iiirf. Summa . vijj. iijW. 

„ scriptura eorundem quat. viz. pro quat. xvirf. , . xxxviijj. vmd. 

„ luminacione . . "^ „:;j 

acione -j^^ 

Summa xlviiij. xi^. 
ao 



5. HUronymi Epistolae. Vellum, 1 1 i x 8i, ff 300, double columns. Fourteenth 
and fifteenth century. (No. 198, p. 234.) 

Pro pergameno viz. <^^ quat. precium quaterni iiW. Summa . vLr. ixo?. 
Pro scriptura eorundem viz. xxv quat. viz. pro quaterno xvi^i 

Summa xxxiii.r. iiij^. 

Pro luminacione (?) \'\d. 

Pro ligacione ii.r. 

Summa xliij. viirf. (?) 

For comparison with these prices, I extract two bills from Mr. F. Madan's 
Books in Mamtscript, 1893, pp. 43, 44 : — 

About 1380, John Prust, Canon of Windsor, received 75J. M. for writing 

d. 
8 

3 
9 



and illuminating a Textus Evangelii, some of the items being : j_ 

19 quaterni of parchment at /8 I3 

Ink I 

Vermilion 

Commons for 18 weeks at /lo 15 

Stipend 13 

Illumination 4 

Binding 3 



In 1467 Thomas lympno' of Bury was paid, 
for viij hole vynets p'se ye vynett xijrf. 

„ xxj demi-vynets, p'se ye demi-vynett iiijrf. . . 

„ Psalmes lettres xv" and di' (1550) ye p'se of C ii\]d. 

„ p'ms letters Ixiij", p'se of C jrf. 

„ wrytynge of a quare and di', p'se ye quayr xxrf. . 

„ wrytynge of a Calender 

,. iij quayres of velym, p'se ye quayr xxrf. 

„ notynge of v quayres and ij leves, p'se of ye quayr viijrf. 

„ capital drawynge iij' and di', ye p'se 

„ flloryshynge of capytallis, v' 

„ byndynge of ye boke 



s. 

viij 

vij 

v 

v 

ij 

V 

"J 



XIJ 



4 
3 
4 



y 

iij 

vj 

xij 

vij 
iii 

V 



See also Pastoti LetUrs, Gairdner's edition, 1900, vol. ii. 336. 



•zi 



APPENDIX B 

SALES OF BOOK CAUTIONS 



The Grace Books of the University contain a great number of titles of books 
deposited as ' cautions,' or pledges which, as a guarantee that they would proceed 
to perform the requisite acts on admission to a degree, students were bound to 
deposit. These cautions were forfeited if the student did not perform the 
stipulated exercises. {Grace Book A. viii.) We have a record of the sales of 
such books for three years, and the lists are interesting and valuable for the 
mention of the prices obtained for them : — 

1489 [Grace Book B. 31]. pro libro codicis 

pro missdi .... 
„ libro continente 5 libros sapienciales cum glosa 
„ libro medicinarum .... 

„ textu logice 

„ vno libro scil. ff. nouum 

„ portiferio secundum vsum carmelitarum 

„ vna appellacione 

1490 \B. 28]. pro M. sentenciarum 

„ portiphorio 

„ summa raymundi 

„ biblia . 

„ libro dubiorum (?) super sentencias 

„ sophologia 

„ T. super metaphysicam. 

„ flf. nouo 

„ ff. inforciatum .... 

„ tabula iuris 

„ quaternis 

„ libro clementinarum 

„ ware super sentencias . 

„ M. sentenciarum .... 
1492 \B. 37]. pro libro codicis, cuius secundum folium codicis composi- 
cionem pertinentibus 

„ digesto vet[er]e cuius secundum folium ex hiis legibus 

„ Missale cum altero libro ex debito vniuersitatis pro 
determinacione asscheley 

„ libro phisicorum cuius secundum folium si monetur 
appreciatur 

„ libro parui voluminis, cuius secundum folium lorum 
spectat 

„ libro de summa trinitate et fide catholica, cuius secun- 
dum folium it sicut nobis ijj. vjrf. 

„ prima parte summe, cuius secundum folium naturalibus 

forma vj. 



vs. vi\]d. 

xiijj. iiij<^. 

iijj. iiijd?. 

iiijj. 

xvjrf. 

xj. \]d. 

vs. iiijV. 

xijd. 

His. ui]d. 

vs. 

iijf. iiiid. 

ijs. 

i}s. 

ijj. viijrf. 

. iiijs. 

iiijj. vjd. 

iiijs. 

iijj. viiid. 

. 7d}d. 

vjs. viijd. 

vijs. 

vs. 

XJ. 

vj-r. 
xij^. 
xxd. 

ijs. 



It is worth mentioning that on the 6th of Novembef, 148c, the University 
made a statute forbidding the keepers of any of the chests to receive as a caution 
or pledge any book written or printed on paper. (Cooper's Annals of Cambridge 
i. a34; HejMVOod's Early Camb. Statutes, i. 184.) 

APPENDIX C 

BOOKS WITH • CAUTIONS' 

The following list of books in existence containing records of their being 
deposited in the various University chests, as 'cautions,' from 1289 to 1471, is 
collected and selected from the valuable Catalogue of MSS. in the Library of 
Peterkouse, Cambridge, by Dr. M. R. James, 1899 ; and the Catalogue of MSS. 
in Caius College Library, Cambridge, by J. J. Smith, 1849. For more informa- 
tion of the books so used reference should be made to the Catalogues themselves. 

1289. Aristoteles de Historia Animalium, &c. 

Caucio M . . . . te feld exposita ciste sci (erasure) mensis Maji A" diii 
M'CCLXXXIX et habet tria supplementa . . . o | ansel. s. . . . | ethi et 
instituta et mag. henricus hailstone manucep* saluari cistam indempnem. 

(James, p. 141.) 
1300 and 1341. Gilbertus Anglicus, &c 

(5) Astronomical Tract, seemingly Ptolemaei Centiloquinum, with Italy's 

comment. At the bottom, lined through, is 

' a° di. M^ccc" caucione,' and ' supplementum caucionis (?) pro domo que 

fuit Reginaldi le bedel.' 

(6) Platearius. 

Caucio m. Will' de pykeward ... die S. Agathe uirginis a. d. m* ccc"". xli 
et habet supplementum Textum Decretalium pro qua cauebitur Mag. 
Johannes de Ranham. (James, p. 73.) 

1330. Medica. 

Caucio Walt, de Kasten expositus ciste botulph . . . concepcionis beate 
marie anno dom. lsl°CCC° XXX°. (James, p. 307.) 

1337. lustiniani Institutiones et Novellae. 

Caucio loh. Geneuyl exp. in cista de cicestr. in vig. S. Caterine pro . . . XXX 
den.' a. d. M. CCC. XXX septimo et tradatur Roberto Neturuyl vel dicto 
Johanni. (James, p. 48.) 

1347 and 1349. Physicorum Aristotelis translatio duplex cum commento. 

Caucio . . . exposita ciste botulphi in die S, Edmundi regis a. d. M.CCC. quadrag. 

septimo. 
Caucio M. loh's de Tyvrington exp. ciste de Rowbyri pro . . . die iouis 
prox. ante fest S. Ambrosii ad. M.CCC. quadrag. nono. (James, p. 85.) 

1388. Digestum Vetus. 

Cautio Mag. Walteri Dyngley et d. Ric. Wynd . . . | vetus et 11 forsat' 
exposita ciste neyle in festo ss. gordiani . . . | domini M''CCC"°LXXXViil. 
et lythfoote manucep'. (James, p. 40.) 

23 



1400 and 1408. Polychronicon Radulphi Higdeni. 

Caucio magri hosbem. expos, ciste de Derlynton in vigilia nativitatis beate 

Marie, an" Domini MCCCC. 
Caucio Henrici Osborne expos, ciste Lyng in festo sci benedicti ; et erit 
pollicronica pro xxvij. viii^. habet supplementum iuris civ. volumina 
an" Dni MCCCC. octavo. (Smith, p. ^6.'^ 

1410, 1413, 1420, 1433. Nich. de Lyra super Vetus Testamentum. 
f i) . . . pro xLr. festo S. Cedde conf. a. d. 1410. 
(2^ . . . pro xIj. ciste de Neell. 30 April 1413. 

(3) loh. . . . ngham et Rich. Couell. cist, de Lyng in die S. WIfranni 1420, 

pro 3i marc, et habet supplementum zonam argenteam. 

(4) . . . cist, de lynk a. d. M". CCCC. xxili" festo iohannis et pauH pro iili. 

vis. viii^f. (James, p. 103.) 

1434. S. Thomas de Anima &c. 

Caucio (erasure) exposita cista M* Thome de castro bemardi a. d. M". CCCC". 
34". In vigilia exaltacionis s. crucis cuius supplementum est textus de 
animalibus. (James, p. 171.) 

1438. Legenda Aurea. 

Caucio M. lohn Fayre exposita ciste M. Tho de Castrobernardi a. d. M° 
CCCC" XXVIII. Xilll die decembris et est legenda aurea et habet supple- 
mentum ysayam et geremiam glosati supplementum, M. J. Rusten (?) 
cuius principale est parysyensis de viciorum viribus. (James, p. 159.) 

1434, Secunda Secundae S. Thomae. 

Caucio m. J. clynt exposita ciste de Nele a. d. M°. cccc"" xxxill". xxii die 
mens. Ian. et habet supplementum iii nobilia maioris ponderis cum par 
precularum anulo aureo et lapide galluco (?) pro iiii Marc. (James, p. 95.) 
1436. Augustinus in Psalmos LI— C. 

Caucio M. W. Dyngley exposita cite M, Thome de castroberna (i)rf. A.D. 
M. CCCC. 3Vi° quinto die lulii est aug. super 3*"" quinquagenam. pro 
xlj. (James, p. 115.) 

1440. S. Thomas super Quartum Sententiarum : 

Cautio : exposita ciste S. Iohannis. A. D. 1440. (James, p. 70.) ' 

1440. Rob. Lincolniensis Doctrina Cordis, &c. 
25. Tabula super diadema monachorum. 

Caucio mag'' Sauage apud (?) cistam de Nes (?) a", d. M"CCCC. xl" xv" die 
mens. lunii. (James, p. 341.) 

1443. S. Augustini quaedam. 

Caucio mea tm (?) vna 1044 iij (i. e. 1443) vicesimo 5*° die may in cista nostra 
interiori. (James, p. 313.) 

1459. lohannes Canonicus in Physica, &c. 

Caucio (erasure) exposita ciste de (erasure) a. d. M. CCCC lix, xxix die mens, 
lanuarii et est lohannes Canonicus cum multis aliis tractatibus cuius 
3 fo. incipit 3° quia arguerem et iacet pro (erasure) vi^. (James, p. 319.) 
1471. Lyra super Vetus Testamentum. 

Caucio . . . exposita ciste de derlyngham a. d. IWCCCC" 71° 3° die mensis 
may {this is written over an erased clause : annos et die in re)gistro 
patent et habent.— L. S. (James, p. 41.) 

34 



PART II 
SIXTEENTH CENTURY 

With the sixteenth century the state of affairs changed, and instead of one 
' stationarius ' the stationers gradually increased in number, so that in 1540 we 
find records of five then existing. In 1556 Queen Mary's Commissioners 
'searched the iiii statyoners for Heretycall bookes' (Mere's Diary, in Lamb's 
Original Documents, p. r89), and by this we get a definite statement of their 
number. 

Although in 1534, by Letters Patent, the University were allowed to elect 
three stationers and printers or sellers of books (see p. 34), it does not appear 
(from existing records) that the University took much advantage of this privilege. 
According to the Statuta Reginae Elizabethae An. ia™° edita, ' Nominaciones 
et Elecciones Lectorum, Bedellorum, Stacionariorum, &c. . . . fient intra 
quatuordecim Dies post Vacacionem, nisi aliter Statutis nostris aut Fundacione 
cautum sit.' (Lamb's Original Documents, 337.) In only one case can be found 
a succession of appointments. Garrett Godfrey, one of the three appointed 
in 1534, died 1539, and Nicholas Pilgrim was immediately appointed : he dying 
1545, Peter Sheres was appointed. Richard Noke was appointed 1540, and it is a 
question whom he succeeded, Spierinck or Nicholson. Possibly, as the stationers 
in general were still entirely under the authority of the University, whose per- 
mission they were obliged to get before trading in the town, that control was 
found to be sufficient, and the practice of appointing three stationers was dis- 
continued. Eventually new regulations were made in 1583 for the Booksellers, 
Bookbinders and Stationers (see p. 73), and for the printer separately. 

This early portion of the sixteenth century is an important period 
in the history of the stationers, some of whom bound books as well as sold 
them. And the bindings of Godfrey, Spierinck, and Siberch are among the 
earliest and the finest of the roll bindings of the period. (Duff, Printers, Stationers, 
and Bookbinders of London and Westminster in the Fifteenth Century, p. 100.) 

The binders were all .Dutchmen, naturalized Englishmen it may safely be 
said, when we see the prominent part they took in the affairs of their parish 
church. 

Each binder had his own rolls and stamps. Similar in character some of 
the rolls certainly are, which evidently points to their being executed by the 
same cutter : but a minute examination will at once show variations in the 
shape of the figures of animals, the order of the compartments, the plainness 
or ornamentation of lines, &c. 

25 E 



On one specimen of binding are found both Godfrey's and Spierinck's rolls 
of the same character, one over the other, Spierinck evidently tried to obliterate 
Godfrey's roll (see p. 40, and plate viii), and the result is a curious medley which 
at first sight is very confusing. Then we have evidence of Siberch's grand roll 
being used by Spierinck, on the binding of a Faber, Paris, 1526 ; the J is 
obliterated by the N being stamped over it, but not completely, for Siberch's 
initial can be plainly seen underneath (see Plate XV) ; and this roll was used with 
one of Spierinck's own. Siberch's roll of dancing figures was used later by an 
English (London?) binder (see Plate XXII). 

It would be a source of great satisfaction if it could be discovered what 
became of John Siberch after 1523. The information collected together is 
extremely interesting, but more is wanted. We know that he was not in Cam- 
bridge during 1533-4, when the Subsidy Roll was made out, or his name would 
have appeared there. 

As regards the leather used by the Cambridge binders, Mr. E. Gordon Duff 
allows the reproduction of the following paragraph from his work on the Printers, 
Stationers, and Bookbinders of London and Westminster (p. loi) : — 

A very great number of early Cambridge bindings, and some that may 
have been produced at places not far distant, are remarkable for the curious 
red colour of the leather used. The binding has the appearance of having 
been painted over with red, and then the red almost rubbed off again. This 
is probably caused by some peculiarity in the process of tanning and dressing. 
Whenever I see this curious red colour I promptly put down the binding as 
a Cambridge one, and a more careful examination generally proves it to be correct. 



PETRUS BREYNANS 

Of this binder very little is known. The earliest information is gained from 
an entry in the University Grace Book. {Grace Book B. 1903, 183.) 

i5°^-3 Impense pro termino precedenti pascha . . . petro brennanspro liga- 
tione duorum quaternorum in libro statutorum \]d. 

Then we have his will, unfortunately undated, but supposed to be about 1504. 

The absence of any other entry in the University books leads us to 
infer that he was at Cambridge only a short while ; and perhaps the fact 
that his children are mentioned in his will as not being of age may help to 
support this conclusion. 

He lived in the parish of St. Mary the Great, as did most of the other 
stationers and binders ; and when he died was buried in the Church, where his 
wife was also buried in 1526. 

From the will we see that he must have been in pretty good circumstances. 
He left ;^i2 to his son Baldwin, and ;^6.each to his other children John and 

26 " 



Margaret ; to be paid when they came of age. To his wife Katrine or Katerin 
he left his ' hardware shopp,' with its contents, and the household goods, &c., 
and made her one of the executors of the will. To the building of St. Mary's 
Church he left 20 shillings, and 30 shillings, to the High Altar for tithes unpaid, 
and a ' missale de melioribus que habeo ad deserviendum usui Ecclesie.' To 
each of the Fellows of Corpus Christi College he left a Missale, or another book 
of equal value, and to Gunwelhall (now Gonville and Caius College) a Missale. 
To his servant Joan he left y.,^d., and to Master Henry Browne his best 
gown and a silver cup. He left money for the poor, and for thirty masses for his 
soul, and for priests to perform these masses for three and six months. Also 
3J. 4d. to each of the four orders in Cambridge : the Franciscans, Dominicans, 
Carmelites, and Augustinians. As Executors, his wife, Henry Browne, and 
Gerald Godfrey are named, with John Rede as supervisor, to each of whom he 
bequeathed ao shillings for their labour. 
The will is as follows : — 

In Dei nomine Amen, per hoc presens publicum instrumentum cunctis 
pateat euidenter quod ego petrus Breynans sanus mente et corpore condo 
testamentum meum. In hunc modum: in primis commendo animam meam 
deo omnipotent! et Beate marie toti quoque curie celesti, corpus quoque meum 
sepiliendum infra precinctum cimiterii ecclesie beate Virginis iuxta forum in 
Cantabrigia siue in ecclesia sine in cimiterio secundum beneplacitum executorum 
meorum. Insuper volo quod dicantur pro me amicisque meis ac quibus teneor 
ter quinque misse de quinque vulneribus lesu Christi tempore quo fuerim in 
agonia sive nimia infirmitate si possibile fuerit, quod si tempus non admiserit 
post mortem meam dicantur. Insuper volo quod die sepulture mee dicatur 
vnum trentale siue triginta misse pro anima mea ac eorum pro quibus teneor 
orare. Insuper volo quod quatuor sacerdotes cantent missam pro anima mea 
ac eorum pro quibus teneor per quarterium vnius anni aut duo presbiteri per 
medium anni aut vnus per annum integrum cotidie secundum quod melius fieri 
potest et executoribus meis visum fuerit et anime mee et animabus benefactorum 
meorum expediri semper rogans amicos fautores et executores et quibus intererit 
aliquid pro anima mea facere vt qyod citius potuerint omnia sine interuallo fieri 
in quantum potest procurent. 

Insuper volo quod tempore siue die sepulture corporis mei dentur elimosine 
pauperibus ad valorem xx*' solidorum sterlingorum. Insuper do et lego iiii" 
ordinibus mendicancium in Cantabrigia existentibus eorum cuilibet ins. n\\d, 
sterlingos. Insuper do et lego cuilibet filiorum meorum scilicet Balduino lohanni 
et Margarete. In primis Balduino xij libras lohanni sex libras Margarete sex 
Kbras sterlingas eis soluendas tempore discrecionis siue legitime etatis. Ita tamen 
quod si vnum vel duos mori contigerit quod tunc pars illius mortui siue mortuorum 
deueniat lure quodam hereditario vel testamentario ad alium vel alios superstitem 
vel superstites. Et quod ipse vel ipsi superstes vel superstites habeant vel habeat 
partem vel partiunculam talis defuncti vel defunctorum excepta quarta parte 
illius partis vel partiuncule taliter ad eos vel eas taliter per mortem defuncti vel 
defunctorum, que quarta pars volo quod in pia opera scilicet missas vel elimosinas 
pro anima mea et animabus eorum quibus teneor, expendatur. Item do et lego 

27 E 3 



Katrine vxori mee the hardeware shopp cum omnibus ad hoc pertinentibus et 
omnia vtensilia domus si non contingat alteri viro nubere, quod si ita contigerit 
tercia pars remaneat ad vsum puerorum secundum distribucionem executorum 
meorum. Item do et lego fabrice ecclesie beate Marie iuxta forum in Cantabrigia 
30J. solvendos septimanaliter iiiia?. quousque predicti xx*' solidi fuerint plenarie 
persoluti. Item lego summo altari eiusdem ecclesie pro decimis neglectis triginta 
soHdos. Item do et lego ad edificacionem capelle Sancte Anne in Cantabrigia 
y. 4d. Item lego magistro Henrico Browne togam meam meliorem et vnum 
coclearem argenteum. Item do et lego cuilibet sociorum collegii Corporis Christi 
siue Sancti Benedicti vulgariter sic appellati vnum missale aut alium librum eiusdem 
valoris. Item do et lego lohanne famule mee iijj. iiij</. Item do et lego ecclesie 
Beate Marie vnum missale de melioribus que habeo ad deseruiendum vsui 
Ecclesie. Adhuc volo quod si contingat me mori quod vxor mea habeat illam 
summam pecunie quam legaui pueris meis ad vsum vxoris mee duntaxat per 
temporem donee in pura viduitate perseuerat. Et si contingat alteri nubere 
summa integra restituatur et dabit fideiussionem siue caucionem sufficientem 
executoribus meis antequam matrimonium contrahatur, quo facto potest habere 
prouentum dicte summe pro alendis pueris. Et si contingat dictam Katerinam 
mori, summa remanens disponatur pro animabus nostris. Item do et lego ad 
disponendum pro anima mea et amicorum meorum xxs. ad pias elemosinas. 
Item lego Capelle gunwelhalle vnum missale. Item volo quod omnia legata 
augeantur [aut] diminuantur secundum voluntatem et consilium executorum 
meorum quos ordino et constituo Katerinam vxorem meam Magistrum Henricum 
Browne et Gerald Godfray et Magistrum lohannes [szc] Rade superuisorem et 
do cuilibet eorum pro labore suo viginti solidos. 

We meet with the son Baldwin again in the Si. Mary's Parish Book (edited 
by J. E. Foster, p. 60) on the death of his mother : — 

1536. Bowen Brenens owith for the buryell of his Modir within theChirche vjj. viijW. 
1528. Baldewyn Brenens owith for the buryell of his Modir within the 

Chirche v\s.v\\]d. 

As the entry of the debt does not again appear we may conclude that it was 
eventually paid. 

GARRETT GODFREY 

Garrett Godfrey may, as Mr. Weale suggests {Bookbindings at South 
Kensington, i. 1898, xxxvii), be probably identical with Garret van Graten. 
Graten, a village in what is now the Dutch province of Limburg, was probably 
his birthplace, and Godfrey his father's name. This suggestion is probably 
founded upon the existence of the name Graten written on some sheets of foreign 
printing used as padding for the cover of Aristotelis problematum sectiones duae de 
quadraginta, 1534 (see no. 40, p. 4a, and Plate I), which was bound by Godfrey, 
and is now in the South Kensington Museum. (Weale, 1894, i.) That he 
was a Dutchman is proved by the entry in the Subsidy Roll : Cambridge, 15 
Hen. VIII {%% April, 1533, to 31 April, 1534), which is 

Garrard Goddefrey Ducheman in goods xx/z. xk. 

38 



And it is worth noting that on the same Roll Nicholas Sperying and 19 other 
perspns are entered as being Dutchmen. 

The name attached to the document in 1503 is Garreit stacioner, and in the 
Parish book of St. Mary's the name is variously spelt and given during Godfreys 
lifetime, as: Garrarde Godfrey, Garrard Goddefrey, Gerrard Godfrey, Garard 
Godfrey, Mr. Garrard, Garrard Goodfrey, Garrard Godfraye, goodman Garrat, 
Garret, Garrard Godfrey, Gerrard Godfrey, Gerrard Godffrey, Garrett Godfreye, 
Garrett Godfraye, Garrett Godfrey. 

We first meet Godfrey in connexion with one of the disputes between the 
University and Town due to the many privileges which the University had affect- 
ing the affairs of the Town and its inhabitants. 

In 1503 the frequent controversies distracted the scholars from their studies 
and were of most serious detriment to the trade of the burgesses. Both parties 
besought the amicable interference of Margaret Countess of Richmond and Derby, 
the King's mother (Cooper's Annals, i. 358), who, with three arbitrators, after 
hearing both parties, made an award, 11 July, 150a, consisting of thirty articles, 
which was reduced to the form of an indenture of covenant between them. This 
indenture of covenant was executed and signed la May, 1503 (ib., i. a6o). 
Sections 3, 4 and 5 concern the stationers and bookbinders : — 

§ 3. Yt ys couenanted, accorded, and agreed, that all . . . Stacioners, 
Lymners, Schryveners, Parchment-makers, Boke-bynders ... in the sayd 
Vniuersitie, brought vp principallye in the learninge in euerye of the said 
Occupacions, or at his or their first dwellinge in the said Towne set vp any of 
the said occupacions, shall be reputed and taken as Common Ministers and 
Seruants of the said Vniuersitie, as long as they shall vse any such occupacion, 
and shall haue and enjoye lyke priuilege as Scolers Seruants of the same 
Vniuersitie shall haue and enjoie. And if eny person brought vpp in learninge 
of eny other occupacion in the Vniuersitie or other Places, vsying eny other 
occupacion, set vpp eny of the Occupacions above rehersed, in the said Towne, 
he shall not therby have priuilege as a Common Minister or Seruant of the said 
Vniuersity, ne enjoye eny such priuilege as longe as he shall principallye vse 
eny occupacion other than eny occupacion above rehersed, and all suche 
Persones as be aboue rehersed, and none other, shal be from the tyme of the 
sayd award accepted and taken as Scholers and Scholers Seruants^ and Common 
Ministers of the Vniuersitie. Prouided alwayss that all ye persons namyd and 
conteynd in a Cedale to theise presents annexed, shal be reputed and also taken 
as Scolers Seruants, and enjoye ye priuileges of the said Vniuersitie, as longe as 
they shal be so reputed and taken by the said Vniuersitie. 

§ 4. ... It is couenanted, accorded, and agreed . . . that all Seruants 
reteyned dwellynge with eny such Scolers, Scolers Seruants, or common Ministers 
of the said Vniuersitie in household within the said Towne or Vniueraite onelye, 
and none other Towne ne place, shall haue privilege as Scolers of the sayd 
Vniuersitie, and all other to be vnder the priuilege and Jurisdyction of the Maior, 
Bayllyffes, and Burgesses of the said Towne. 

§ 5. . . . that no person dwellinge with eny Scoler, Scoler's seruant, or com- 

39 



raon minister of the said Vniuersitie, that hereafter shall departe from his Master, 
be after of the said Vniuersitie, but that they be taken as forens, except the persons 
vsinge the sayd occupacion, as be afore rehersed to be priuileged by the said 
Vniuersitie by the reason of the said Craft in forme afore rehers,ed, but yf he be 
newly reteyned in forme afore rehersed, and than to be no longer ymployed but 
onelye for the tyme of the same Reteyner. 

The schedule following this Award contains 65 names, amongst which are 
Waterus Hatly (see p. 13), and last, Garreit Stacioner. 

This award seems to be a repetition or continuation of the privileges which 
the earlier stationers had enjoyed, a privilege especially to their advantage 
in later years, when, if 'strangers,' they would have been compelled to cease 
work ; but the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge were specially mentioned 
as being exempt from those Acts of Parliament. (1523 see Cooper's Annals, i. 
303 : i5af ib. i. 329.) 

We do not know when Godfrey commenced business. We know from the 
previously mentioned agreement that he was a stationer in May, 1503, and 
succeeding statements show that he lived in the parish of St. Mary the Great, 
where we find him in i5i3> until his death in 1539. 

The earliest book we possess in a binding by him, as far as our knowledge 
goes, is the Summa magistri lohannis de sancto Geminiano . . . de exemplis et 
similitudinibus rerum, 1499 ; and this commences a long series of existing examples 
of his work, of which a detailed list is given at p. 38. 

The following notes from the Parish Book of the Church of St. Mary the 
Great ' show, by his close connexion with the Church in the way of filling various 
ofiSces, that he was evidently a man of good position. 

Godfrey first appears (Foster, p. ao) in connexion with a purchase from the 
Churchwardens in 1513 of ' ij bolles of Mortar ija?.' 

Before quoting further it will be well to give, from Cooper's Memorials of 
Cambridge (iii. 298), the ancient manner of the election of the Church Officers 
on Easter Monday of each year. 

Each of the outgoing churchwardens nominated one person. These two 
nominees chose six others, and the eight chose two churchwardens, two wardens 
of the sepulchre and rood lights, and two wardens of the lights of the Mass of 
Jesus. In 1520 there were also elected in like manner four auditors of the 
churchwardens' accounts and four keepers of the keys of the chantry hutch 
(viz. the chantry chaplain, the two churchwardens, and another). 

At the meeting of 1516 Godfrey was chosen one of the two churchwardens 
for the coming year. There is no entry of this meeting, but we have the 
evidence of the previous churchwardens' accounts being ' delyuered to Garrarde 

' For the use of his transcript of this Parish Book, which is to be issued by the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society, I have to thank the editor, Mr. J. E. Foster ; and those who read my 
notices of Godfrey and the other stationers will see how greatly indebted I am for his generosity. 

30 



Goddefrey oon of the Chirche wardeyns for the yere to come ' (Foster, p. a;), 
and a full transcript of his and John Thirleby's accounts as submitted to the 
meeting the following year (ib. p. 38). These two churchwardens were succeeded 
the next year (15 17) by Nicholas Spierinck and another, and Godfrey was 
chosen one of the Electors (ib. p. 31), which office he held again in 1518 and 
1 519 (ib. p. 30). 

In 151 8 Godfrey gave vj. and Spierinck i]s. vjd. for 'the Stoles in the Body 
of the Chirclie ' (ib. p. 10). Five shillings was, with one exception of ten shillings, 
the largest amount of money given by any one person, and only nine persons 
gave that amount. 

He was again elected one of the churchwardens in 1521, and his fellow 
churchwarden (Goodhale) dying in office was succeeded by John Thirleby (ib. 
p. 43), who was previously churchwarden with Godfrey 1516-17. Their accounts 
for the year are given in full (ib. p. 46), and we see that towards the making of the 
Roodeloft during their year of office, Goodhale collected xIj. and Goddefrey 
viij7«. (ib. p. 46). Nicholas Spierinck again succeeded as a churchwarden the 
following year (ib. pp. 43, 47). 

From 1533 to 1527 Godfrey was again one of the Electors (ib. pp. 53-4, 
57-8,63); Spierinck being also one in 1534 and 1525. In 1536 he is called the 
'goodman garrat' (ib. p. 58). He was an Elector in 1530, and both an Elector and 
Auditor in 1531 and 1534 (ib. pp. 68, 75) ; in 1538 an Elector (ib. p. 87), and again 
in the year of his death (1539) both an Elector and an Auditor (ib. pp. 87, 89). 

Some other entries in the church accounts during this time (ib. pp. 53, 56, 72, 
90, 92, 93) may be noted — 

1533, a payment ' for byndyng of a prosyssyonary ' .... viij^. 

1534, ' payed for byndyng of a l^entt booke ' i}d. 

1530, a payment 'to garret and to nycolas speryng forij cherchbokes' ijs. 

1538, 'payed for a boke callyd the regyster' v}d. 

1540, paid ' for halfe the byble ij.y' ; and a memorandum of ' Allocacions 

wher of thei dezyer allowance,' for halfe the gret byble . . ixs. 

Erasmus in a letter to Henry Bullock, 31 August, 1513 (really 1516), amongst 
greetings to Cambridge friends says ' Salutabis . . . veterem hospitem meum Gerar- 
dum,' who was probably Garret Godfrey the bookseller (Searle's Hist, of Queens' 
Coll., 1867, p. 155). Erasmus may have lived in his house, and hence, as Ascham 
says, Godfrey would be well acquainted with his habits. Roger Ascham, who 
came to the University about 1530, says in his Toxophilus (first printed, 1545) — 

Pastymes for the mynde onelye be nothing fit for studentes, bycause the 
bodye which is most hurt by studie, shulde take away no profyte thereat. This 
knewe Erasmus verye well, when he was here in Cambrige : which when he had 
ben sore at his boke (as Garret our bookebynder hath verye ofte tolde me) for 
lacke of better exercise, wolde take his horse, and ryde about the markette 
hill, and come agayne [home]. 

31 



Dr. Caius in the Annals of his College (see p. ^5) says that Erasmus when 
publicly lecturing on St. Jerome, resided at the ' Arma Regia,' where lived John 
Siberch the printer. 

Again writing, Christmas-day, 1535, to Dr. Robert Aldrich of King's 
College, Erasmus sends greetings to ' veteres sodales . . . Gerardum, Nicolaum, 
et loannem Siburgum bibliopolas.' (Bowes's Cambridge Printers, 1886, p. 387.) 

In 1530 when there existed at Cambridge the two stationers and binders, 
Godfrey and Spierinck, and probably John Siberch also, we get a glimpse of the 
activity of the University in connexion with the books presumably sent to 
Cambridge by Thomas Cots (or Cotes), a stationer of London. In the Archives 
of the City of London exist the Repertories, or minute books of the Court of 
Aldermen, and there is an entry in Repertory 6 dated Sept. 6, 13 Hen. VIII 
(1530). 

At this court was redde the letter directed to the Mayor and aldermen 
from the University of Cambrigge, concerning divers boks to be bought and 
sold by Thomas Cots (or Cotes), stacioner, whereuppon the seyd Thomas had 
in commandment to bring in such proofs as he hath concerning the premises 
upon Tuesday next. And afterwards on the nth day of September yt 
ys agreed that my lord Mayor shall cause to be delivered to the Doctor 
of Honey Lane all such boks as be specyfied in the letters as he hath from 
Cambridge ^. 

The Doctor of Honey Lane was the Rev. William Lambert, Rector of 
AUhallows', Honey Lane, Cheap Ward, London; but why the objectionable 
books were to be delivered up to him, we cannot say. We know that in 1538, 
the Bishop of Lincoln (John Langland), writing to Cardinal Wolsey when he was 
actively suppressing the circulation of Tindale's New Testament by prosecuting 
the distributors or purchasers, mentioned amongst other matters that Dr. Farman 
of Honey Lane had purchased books from Thomas Garrett, who was active in 
circulating that book at Oxford and other places ^- 

During 1539, the University, writing to Cardinal Wolsey upon various 
matters, petitioned that it be granted to them to have three booksellers, upright 
and sober men, who shall be bound by oath and heavy fine, to import or to 
sell no book unless certain men of assured learning, approved by the University, 
shall have first declared it to be such as may safely be sold. And that the 
booksellers should be foreigners, this being of the greatest importance in deciding 
the prices of books, and that they should have liberty and freedom the same as 
English subjects, having the right of buying books from agents from abroad, for 
the provinces, as in London and other marts of the kingdom : — 

^ H. R. Plomer's ' Notices of English Stationers in the Archives of the City of London ' 
(Transactions of Bibliographical Soc. vi. 25) ; Arber's Stationers' Registers, ii. 7. 

« H. R. Plomer's ' Printers and Printing in the State Papers ' (Bibliographica, ii. 209). 
For Thos. Garrett, see Tindale's English New Testament, ed. Arber, 1871, p. 57. 

3» 



The following portion of the letter is that referred to : — 

. . . unum istud non leve Momentum habere credimus, ad eiusmodi in We consider it very important 
perpetuum profligandos Errores (quod tamen, sine tuae Celsitudinis ope, efficere ^^^ '^ ^"^s should allow 

*^ ^ 1 \ ° • -n • T J 1 ^- 1 . A 1 - J i us to have three booksellers 

non valemus; nempe si Kegia Indulgentia concedatur Academiae nostrae, tres ^ound under a heavy fine 
habere Bibliopolas, homines probos atque graves, qui Sacramento et mulcta only to import and sell such 
grandi adstringantur, nullum vel importare, vel vendere Librum, quern non prius tooks as have been duly b- 
viri aliquot absolutae erudltionis (quos Censores huic rei praeficiet Academia) "°^* " 
talem pronunciarint, ut qui tuto vendatur. Quos tum Bibliopolas, quoniam e re bi" forerners°°buf sSj'uw""!)^ 
nostra magis erit, Alienigenas esse, sic enim consuletur librorum pretiis, joy the full pnvileges of Eng- 
summe credimus necessarium, ilia uti libertate et Immunitate gaudere, qui- lish subjects. 
bus Indigenae tut fruuntur, ita Provinciali lure donati, ut Londini aliisque 
Regni huius Emporiis, ab exteris Negotiatoribus libros emere possint ^. . . . 

No immediate answer was given to this petition, though evidently it was 
remembered, and its proposal embodied in the statute concerning Stationers 
of 1534. (See p. 34.) 

In the parliament commencing November 3, 1529 an act was passed — 

that no artificer, alyaunt or straunger, borne out of the kynges obeysaunce, 
beyng a housholder, or inhabytyng within any of the Universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge, . . . shall from hensforth have or reteyne in their servyce journey- 
men or apprentices being alyauntes or estraungers borne above the nombre 
of X. persons at one tyme. 31 H. VIII, cap. 16 (Poulton, p. 458). 

In the St. Mary's Parish Book for 1530 (Foster, p. 7a) is an entry : — 

payd to garet and nycolas speryng for ij church bokes . . . ijj. 

During 1530-31 the following entry occurs in the Bursar's book of Queens' 
College (Searle's Queens' College, p. 1 89) ; — 

Paid 3° die Maji Gerardo bibliopola (sic) pro libro in quem statuta 

transcribuntur viij^. 

In the twenty-fifth year of Henry VIII (1533-4) an act was passed (35 H. 
VIII, cap. 15, Statutes of the Realm, iii. 309): — 

that no person or persons, recyant or inhabytaunt within this Realme, after the 
seid feast of Cristemas next commyng, shall bye to sell agayn any prynted 
bokes, brought frome any partes out of the Kynges obeysaunce redy bounden 
in bourdes, lether, or perchement . . . that no person . . . shall bye within this 
Realme, of any Stranger borne out of the Kynges obedyence, other then of 
denyzens, any maner of pryntyd bokes brought frome any the parties behonde 
the See except onely by engrose, and not by retayle. 

In 1534, Henry VIII by Letters Patent, dated from Westminster, July ao, 
granted to the Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars, to assign and elect three 
stationers and printers, or sellers of books, who might be aliens or natives, 
living within the University either in their own or hired houses. They were 
to print all manner of books approved by the Chancellor and his vice-gerent 
and three Doctors, and to sell and expose for sale in the University or else- 
' Fiddes, Life of Wolsey : Collections, p. 49. 



where within the realm, as well such books as other books printed within or 
without the realm, as approved by the Chancellor, &c. If aliens, they were 
to reside in the University in order to attend to their business, and were to 
be reputed as the King's subjects and lieges enjoying the same liberties, 
customs, laws, and privileges ; and to pay and contribute to all taxes, &c., as 
the other subjects and lieges of the King. 

Literae Henrici 8". de Stationariis. Pat. 36 H. VIII, p. 3, m. 14. 

Henricus Dei Gratia Angliae et Franciae Rex, Fidei Defensor et Dominus 
Hiberniae, Omnibus ad quos praesentes Litterae pervenerint Salutem. Sciatis 
quod nos de Gratia nostra speciali, ac ex certa Scientia et mero Motu nostris 
concessimus et Licentiam damns pro nobis et Heredibus nostris dilectis nobis 
in Christo Cancellario Magistris et Scholaribus Universitatis nostrae Cantebrigiae, 
Quod ipsi et Successores sui in perpetuum per eorum Scripta sub Sigillo Cancellarii 
dictae Universitatis sigillata, de tempore in tempus, assignent, eligant, et pro 
perpetuo habeant inter se et infra Universitatem nostram praedictam perpetuo 
manentes et inhabitantes tres Stationarios et Librorum Impressores seu Venditores 
tam alienigenos et natos extra Obedientiam nostram, quam Indigenos nostros et 
natos infra Obedientiam nostram, tam conductitias quam proprias Domus habentes 
et tenentes. Qui quidem Stationarii sive Impressores Librorum in Forma praedictd 
assignati, et eorum quilibet, omnimodos Libros, per dictum Cancellarium vel eius 
Vices gerentem, et tres Dbctores ibidem apprbbatos seu in posterum approbandos, 
ibidem imprimere, et tam Libros illos, quam alios Libros ubicunque, tam extra 
quam infra Regnum nostrum impressos sic, ut praedicitur, per praedictum 
Cancellarium seu eius Vicem gerentem et tres Doctores ibidem approbatos seu 
approbandos tam in eadem Universitate quam alibi infra Regnum nostrum 
ubicunque placuerint. Venditioni exponere licite valeant seu valeat et impun^. 
Et quod iidem Stationarii sive Impressores etiam extra Obedientiam nostram 
oriundi, ut praedicitur, et eorum quilibet, quamdiu infra Universitatem praedictam 
Moram traxerint,et Negotio praedicto intendant, in omnibus et per omnia tanquam 
fideles Subditi et Legei nostri reputentur habeantur et pertractentur, et quilibet 
eorum reputetur, habeatur, et pertractetur ; ac omnibus et singulis Libertatibus, 
Consuetudinibus, Legibus et Privilegiis gaudere, et uti valeant, et quilibet eorum 
valeat liber^ et quiete prout aliquis fidelis Subditus et Legeus noster quoquo 
Modo uti et gaudere possit, ac Lottum, Scottum, Taxam, Tallagium, et alias 
Consuetudines et Impositiones quascunque non alitor nee alio Modo quam ceteri 
fideles Subditi et Legei nostri solvunt et contribuunt, solvant et contribuant: 
aliquo Statuto, Actu, Ordinatione sive Provisione inde in contrarium facto, edito, 
sive proviso in aliquo non obstante. Proviso semper qu6d dicti Stationarii sive 
Impressores extra Obedientiam nostram sic, ut praemittitur, oriundi, omnia et 
omnimoda Custumias, Subsidia, et alios Denarios pro Rebus, et Merchandizis 
suis extra vel infra Regnum nostrum educendis vel inducendis, nobis debita, de 
tempore in tempus solvent, prout Alienigenae nobis solvunt et non alitor. In 
Cuius Rei testimonium has Literas nostras fieri fecimus patentes. Teste meipso 
apud Westm. 20° Die lulii, An. Reg. z6° ^. 

' Dyer's Privileges of the University, i. 107 ; translation condensed in Cooper's Annals, 
i. 368. 

34 



The University quickly acted in accordance with this privilege, for at about 
Michaelmas (?) of the same year the following Grace was passed by the Senate ^ : 

Yt ys graunted that the vnyuersyte shall assigne and chose accordynge to 
your graunte lately made and geuen you by the King's grace at the procuratyon 
and costes of Nycholas Sperynge, Garret Godfrey, and Segar Nycolson the same 
forsayde three Statyoners to have and ynioy all and s)mgular lybertyes and 
priuyleges specyfyed yn the same graunte for terme of ther naturall lyuys, so 
that thd shall fulfyll at all tymes all and synguler dewtys mencyoned yn the 
same graunte belongyng to them or ther party, and that thei may haue this 
your assygnation and electyon of them yn wrytyngis sygnd wyth your common 
scale. 

From this Grace it would appear that these three stationers were instru- 
mental in procuring the Letters patent from Henry VIII to the University, 
and that they paid the costs connected with the grant. And accordingly 
Nicholas Sperynge, Garrett Godfrey, and Segar Nicholson were officially 
appointed Stationers and printers to the University. Nothing printed by any of 
these persons has yet been discovered, and it seems evident that they were 
not printers, but only stationers and bookbinders : their wills tending also to this 
conclusion. 

Printing at Cambridge, as far as we know at present, died with the last 
printed work by John Siberch in 1523, and was not practised again until 1583 
when Thomas Thomas printed as Printer to the University, to which office he 
was appointed May 3, 1583 (Bowes's Cambridge Printers, 29a ; Catalogue of 
Cambridge Books, 2). 

It is curious to note that we have found no book dated later than 1535 bound 
by Godfrey. 

With the exception of the few entries previously quoted from the Parish 
book of Great St. Mary's Church, we have nothing further until his death in 
1539 ^°<^ subsequent burial in the Church (Foster, 94): — 

received 'for theburyall of Garrett Godfraye there [in the chyrche] vjj. viij^.' 

and 'dyrges' were held that year, and in the two succeeding years (Foster, 
pp. 94, 96, 99). Money was either left or given for this annual ' dyrge,' for in 
the Return of the Commissioners appointed by Henry VIII to inquire into 
the several Colleges, 1545-6, under Chantries in Great St. Mary's Church is, 

Exequiis mri Godfray vj. v\d'^. 

His will is as follows : — 

In domini nomine. Amen. I Garrett Godfrey of Cambridge dwellyng yn 
the Paryshe of St. Mary's nexte the Markett, Stacioner, the xii day of September 
the xxxi yere of the Reygn of Kyng Henry the VIII beyng yn my hole and 

' Grace Book r, amongst Graces Mich. 1533— Mich. 1534 ; Bowes's Camb. Printers, p. 289. 
' Documents relating to the University and Colleges of Cambridge, 1852, i. 286. 

35 Fa 



perfyt mynde, Lawdyd be God, make my Testament and last Wyll in maner 
and forme following. First I bequeath my Sowle to Almighty God and my 
body to be buryed yn the Church of Saynte Mary's aforesayde. I bequeythe 
to my Cosyn Sygar Nycholson xxxli of good and lawful money of Ynglonde 
to be payed yn iii yers next following, eury yere xli out of the whych I wyll that 
the same Sygar Nycholson shall giue and paye to my brother Martynes 
chylderen James, Kataryn, and Elsabeth to ech of them xxs. and to Nycholas 
Pylgrym my seruante xls. Item I bequeyth to Sr bachelar of the Collie 
xs. Item I bequeyth to Nycholas Pylgrym my Fox furryd gown and iii 
pressys with a cuttynge knyffe. The resydew of all my goods vnbequeythed 
I gyff to Agnes my Wyff, whom I make my Sole Executryx to receiue all 
the detts that be owynge to me and to pay the detts that I do owe to all 
other men of true and just dutye to see my body honestly browght to the 
erth and to dyspose to the poore people for my Sowle as she shall thynke 
yt most to the honor of God and comfort of my Solle and all Chrystens. 
wytnesses Mr. D. Ridmayne, Mr. Seton ', and Sir Nycholas Herman with others. 

Proved October ii, 1539. 

From this we can conclude that he had no children alive when the will 
was made. He first mentions his cousin Segar Nicholson, one of the three 
stationers officially appointed by the University in 1534, and of whose relation- 
ship to Godfrey we now learn for the first time (see Segar Nicholson, p. 6a); 
then the three children of his brother Martyne, to each of whom Nicholson is 
to pay xxj. yearly for three years. Ought we to conclude, as nothing was 
left to his brother Martyne, and as Nicholson was to pay the money to the 
children, that Martyne was dead ? Then to his servant Nicholas Pilgrim, who 
he evidently intended should succeed him in the business, he left his fox-furred 
gown, three presses, and a cutting-knife (see Nicholas Pilgrim, p. 65). His 
wife Agnes was mentioned in the St. Mary's churchwardens' accounts of 1516 
and 1521, as receiving money for washing surplices, &c., belonging to the 
church (Foster, pp. 29, 47); and in 15 18 she is mentioned as ' agnes garrett.' 
In 1376 it was stated that the stationers' wives and families were not (along 
with the stationer himself) under the protection of the University, but afterwards 
they were included. Amongst the Baker MSS. (xlii. 223) is an entry (undated) 
that Godfrey's wife was recorded as a privileged person. 

Godfrey was evidently succeeded in his business by Nicholas Pilgrim, who 
was appointed by the University, October 16, 1539. 

' Qy. would this be John Seton of St. John's College, B.A. 1528, afterwards elected a 
Fellow; M.A. 1532 ; D.D. 1544? See Cooper's Athenae Cant. i. 218. 



36 



GODFREY'S BINDINGS 

The description of the books bound by Godfrey is confined to those bind- 
ings which by the rolls used can be identified as coming from his shop. 

It is quite probable that there are other books bound by him without these 
distinctive rolls, but which, at present, we have no means of identifying. 

The list of books cannot even claim to be a complete record of Godfrey's 
bindings which still exist. Many libraries which must contain examples of his 
work (the British Museum, and some of our College Libraries at Cambridge^ 
in particular) have not been searched, and information about them is wanting. 

But from an examination of the books enumerated below, the following 
conclusions can be drawn : — 

Godfrey used five rolls (see Plate XXVI), one at least appearing on every 
book mentioned in the list. 

Roll I, three finely drawn figures of animals, a gryphon, a wivern, and a 
lion, facing to the right, with the binder's initials under the lion, separated from 
each other by branches of foliage. 

This roll was used most frequently. 

Along with roll IV on the books, nos. r, 4, 10, 11, 13, 14, 19, ai, 24, 3^, 27, 
28, 31, 3a, 34 to 39, 40*, 41, 4*. 

With roll II on nos. 5, 15, 22, 29, 30, 5a. 

With roll III on nos. 16, ao, 25, 33. 

With roll V on no. 48. 

Alone on nos. 17, 43", 45. 

Roll II, five divisions, containing a turreted gateway with portcullis, a 
fleur-de-lys, a pomegranate, and a rose, each surmounted by a royal crown, and 
in a canopied compartment ; the other compartment, containing a shield with 
three horse-shoes between the binder's initials, is between the turreted gateway 
and the rose. 

This roll is used along with roll I on nos. 5, 15, 22, 29, 30, 52. 

Mr. Weale, describing the copy of T. More's Utopia, 1518 (no. 29), belonging 
to the late Sir A. W. Franks, with this roll, suggests that the cypher on the 
panel with the shield is 'perhaps for Guido Gimpus, who bore sa three horse- 
shoes org: {Bookbindings at South Kensington, p. 131.) 

Roll III, of four compartments : a turreted gateway, a fleur-de-lys, a 
pomegranate, a rose, each surmounted by a royal crown, in canopied compart- 
ments, whilst the binder's initials are in a small panel between the rose and the 

37 



turreted gateway. A roll similar to roll II, but narrower by about one-third 
and slightly elongated, and certainly not so well drawn. 

Used with roll I on nos. 16, 30, 25, S3- 

Used with roll IV on nos. 8, 18, 33. 

Alone on nos. 2, 6, 12,40, 44. 

Roll IV, quatrefoils within lozenges formed by ornamental diagonal lines. 
Used in panel with roll I as previously mentioned. 
Used with roll III on nos. 8, 18, 23. 
Used alone on nos. 3, 7, 46. 

Roll V, wheels and knots of interlaced strap-work. 

It is worth noting that this roll appears only on books of the latest 
period, dated 1527 to 1535, and of the six books only one has any of the 
previously mentioned rolls — no. 48, Livy, 1533, where it is used with roll I. 

See nos. 43, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51. 

Three stamps used (see Plate XXVI) : — 

Stamp I, fleuron with diamond-shaped centre, used in panel. 
Used on nos. 2, 6, 7, 9, 12. 

Of this stamp Godfrey appears to have had the complete ornament, and also 
half-stamps of the upper or lower, and right or left halves of the ornament. 

Stamp a, octagon, with lion. 

Used on nos. i, 4, 5, 14, 16, ao, 21, 25, 46. 

Stamp 3, small quatrefoil within lozenge. 
Used on no. 23. 

BOOKS BOUND BY GARRETT GODFREY ^ 

I. Summa magistri Johannis de Sancto Geminiano . . . de exemplis et similitu- 
dinibus rerum. Basel. I. Petri et I. Froben. 1499. 4to. 

[Private Collection. 

Autographs: ' lofiis lopdoU de coUegro' regali ' on title, and 'liber loBis lopdoll de coHo 

regali catab'gii ' on signature k 5. 
Roll I forming border enclosing panel of two rows of roll IV, and stamp ;2. 

a. (1) Pomponius Laetus. Venice, 1499 ) ^ r-r- <^ j t-> a- ir- 

;(„ . T3 . T r. .-^ ^ Hto. [E. Gordon Duff, Esq. 

(2) Orosius, Pans. J. Petit, 1506 j^ •• ^ 

Roll III forming border enclosing panel with impressions of stamp i. 

' For direction to some examples of the bindings of Godfrey and Spierinck I am indebted 
to A Note upon Early Cambridge Bindings of the Sixteenth Century, issued by J. P. Gray & Son, 
1900. 

38 



3- Pedacii Dioscoridis Opera. Venetiis, 1499. Folio. [Queens' Coll., Cambridge. 

Roll IV forming border enclosing panel of four rows of same roll. Probably bound by 
Godfrey. 

3a. Bertrandi Sermones. Strasburg, 1501. [Worcester Cath. Library. 

4. Trithemius de scriptoribus ecclesiasticis. Paris. B. Rembolt, 151a. 4to. 

Binding same as no. I. [E. Gordon Duff, Esq. 

5. Postilla super Evangelium Luce Alberti Magni. Hagenau. Hen. Gran, 1504. 

Folio. [Caius Coll., Cambridge. 

Roll I forming border enclosing panel of two rows of roll II, and stamp 2 on outer edges. 

6. Summa Angelica de casibus conscientie per Angelum de Clauasio. Lugd. 

J. Poulet, 1505. 4to. [E. Aimack, Esq. 

Inscription : ' Aux Capucins de Rethel,' at foot of title ; and on folio i the letterpress 
should begin with the capital A which was not printed, and in this space is written 
' Aux capucins de Rethel.' 

Roll III forming border enclosing panel divided into four sections by two broad inter- 
secting bands, enclosing halves of stamp i. 

7. Biblia cum Glosa ordinaria Nicolai de Lyra, &c. Hamb. j 506-8, 6 vols. Folio. 

[Caius Coll., Cambridge. 
On the title of the first part is ' pretium totius operis. 7 vol. xxxiijs. iiijd.' 
Roll IV forming border enclosing diamond-shaped panel with stamp i. 

8. Nic. Deniisei solutio theolpgorum. Rothomagi, 1506. 8vo. 

[St. John's Coll., Cambridge. 
Roll III forming border enclosing panel of one row of roll IV. 

9. Guidonis de Baijso comment, super decretorum volumine. Mediolani, 

1508. Folio. [Queens' Coll., Cambridge. 

Binding same as no. 7, 

10. Pupilla Oculi. Londini, 1510. 4to. [Trinity Coll., Cambridge. 

Binding same as no, i, without stamp. 

11. Epistole familiares M. T. Ciceronis. Paris, 15 11. Folio. [Private Collection. 

Autograph : ' Anthonij Elian ..." on title. CM. stamped on both covers. 
Binding same as no. i. 

I a. M. T. Ciceronis de officiis, &c. Lugd. lac. Myt et lob. de la Place, 151 1. 

Folio. [Jas. Tregaskis, Esq. 

Binding same as no. 6. 
13. Opus Pandectarum medicine matthei siluatici. Impressum Nouis per 

Simonem biuilaqua. Impesis solertis Viri d. Nicolai de girardenghis. 

151a. Folio. [Aberdeen University Library. 

Autograph : ' Ladie Ratclyffe, 1564.' 

Roll I forming border, enclosing panel of three rows — two of roll IV with a centre of roU I. 

39 



14- Gersoni Opera. 4 vols. Argent. J. Knoblouch, 15 14. Folio. 

[Durham Cath. Library. 
Binding same as no. 13, with the addition of stamp 2. 
On this work the roll forming the upper and lower portions of the border is not continued 

from the side borders to the back or to the front edge of the cover. In each of thjese 

otherwise vacant spaces is a single impression of stamp 2. 

15. Platonis Opera. Venet. Aldus, 1515. Folio. [F. C. Burkitt, Esq. 

Bound into two vplumes. 

Binding same as no. 5. [Plate II.] 

16. Faulus Cortesius. Paris. Ascensius, 1515. Folio. 

Roll I forming border enclosing three rows of roll III, and stamp ^; 

17. Codex lustiniani. Paris, 1515. Folio. [Westminster Abbey Library. 

Roll I forming border enclosingpanel of four rows ; one and four blank, two and three of roll I. 

This book was afterwards in the hands of Spierinck, who filled in the two blank rows in 
the panel with his roll II, and tried to obliterate Godfrey's roll I by impressing his own 
roll I over that, but he was not completely successful, and the result is a curious 
medley. One figure, Spierinck's wyvern, appears with the head of Godfrey's gryphon 
in the place of its own head, and both binders' marks are seen, though Godfrey's, 
is indistinct. [Plate VIII.] 

18. (i) Leonis Baptistae Alberti de re aedificatoria. Paris. B. Rembolt &Lud. 

Hornken, 151 2. 
(a) Flavii Vegetii de re militari. Paris, a lohanne paruo, 1515. 4to. 

[Emmanuel Coll., Cambridge. 
Roll IV forming border enclosing panel of two rows of roll III. [Plate VII.] 

19. Summa Angelica. 1515. Folio. [Trinity Coll., Cambridge. 

Roll I forming border enclosing two rows of roll IV with a centre of roll I. 
ao. Decisiones rote noue et antique. Lugd. per J. Moylin al's de Cambray, 
15 1 5. Folio. [Queens' Coll., Cambridge. 

Roll I forming border enclosing panel of three rows of roll III, with impressions of 
stamp 2. As on no. 14 the upper and lower rolls do not extend from the side rolls 
to either the back or front edge, an impression of stamp 2 filling what would other- 
wise be a vacant place. 

ai. Concordantie Maiores. Basel, 1516. Folio. [Trinity Coll., Cambridge. 

Binding same as no. 14. 

aa. Tho. Aquinas. 1516. Folio. [Stonyhurst. 

Roll I forming border enclosing two rows of roll II, with centre of roll I. 
33. S.Hieronymi Opera. 8 vols. Basel, 1516. Folio. [Durham Cath. Library. 
Roll ly forming border enclosing panel of four rows of roll III, and stamp 3. 
On this, the top and lower rolls do not extend beyond the side rolls, impressions of 

stamp 3 filling the vacant places. 
Once belonged to Robert Ridley, possibly a Durham monk, as several other books in 
this library formerly belonged to him.' 

40 



34- N. Everardi loci legales. Louanii, 1516. Folio. [St. John's Coll., Cambridge. 
Roll I forming border enclosing panel of two rows of roll IV with a centre of roll I. 

25. Conradi Heinfagel tertia pars dictionarii. Lugd. 1517. Folio. 

[MacmiHan & Bowes, Cambridge. 
Binding same as no. 20. [Plate III.] 

26. Simonis de Cassia de religione Christiana. Basel, 151 7. Folio. 

[St. John's Coll., Cambridge. 
Binding same as no. 13. 

27. S. Gregorii opera. Paris, 1518. Folio. [Gonville and Caius Coll., Cambridge. 

Binding same as no. 13. 

a8. loannis Fabri Stapulensis de Maria Magdalena, &c., disceptatio. Editio 2*. 
Paris. Hen. Stephanus, 15 18. 8vo. [Salisbury Cath. Library. 

Roll I forming border enclosing panel of one row of roll IV. 

39. Thomae Mori Utopia. Basel, 1518. 4to 

Formerly in the possession of the late Sir A. W. Franks. 

Roll I forming border enclosing panel of two rows of roll II (Weale's Bookbindings at 
South Kensington, II. p. 130). 

30. Valerius Maximus. I. Mareschalus [Lyons]. 1519. 8vo. [E. Gordon Duff, Esq. 

Rolls I and II. The boards composed of the Oxford Lyndewode (14S3). 

31. Antonii Nebrissensis. Opera plurima. Lyons, Jaques Mareschal, 1519. 

Folio. [Private Library. 

Binding same as no. I, 

33. Petri Blesensis opera. Paris, 1519. Folio. [St. John's Coll., Cambridge. 

Roll I forming border enclosing panel (i) on front cover, of two rows of roll IV with a centre 
of roll I ; (2) on back cover, three rows of roll IV. 

2,'^. Theodoretl de curatione Graecorum affectionum, &c. Paris. H. Stephanus, 
151 9. Folio. [Salisbury Cath. Library. 

Roll I forming border enclosing panel of three rows of roll III. 

34. Boemus de Gentibus. Aug. Vind., 1530. Folio. [Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

Roll I forming border enclosing two rows of roll I with centre of roll IV. 
^^. Athanasii opera. Argentinae, 1533. Folio. [F. J. H. Jenkinson, Esq. 

Binding same as no. 13. 

^6. Bedae opera. 1531. Folio. [All Souls College, Oxford. 

Binding same as no. 34. 

^'j. Cuthberti Tonstall de arte supputandi. London, Pynson, 1523. 4to. 

[University Library, Cambridge. 
Binding same as no. 10, 
Autograph : ' lohannes Ponder,' on title. 

41 G 



38. Erasmi moriae encomium. Basel. J. Froben, 1522. 8vo. 

rUniversity Library, Cambridge. 

Binding same as no. 23. 

Autograph : ' Georgius Deius,' on title. Evidently George Day, a scholar of Corpus 
Christi College, B.A. 1520-1, Fellow of St. John's College, 1522, Public Orator, 1528-37, 
Master of St. John's College, 1537, afterwards Provost of King's College, 1538, and 
Bishop of Chichester, 1543. Deprived of his bishopric 1551, but restored 1553, and 
died 1556. (Cooper's Athenae Cantab, i. 156.) 

39. J. Fisheri assertionis Lutheranae confutatio. Antverp, 1523. Folio. 

rst. John's Coll., Cambridge. 
Binding same as no. 13. 

Autograph : ' Edmudus Tyndall,' on title. 

40. Aristotelis problematum sectiones duae de quadraginta, Th. Gaza interprete. 

Paris, 1524. Folio. [South Kensington Museum. 

Roll III forming border at the extreme edge of the top, bottom, and fore-edge of the 

binding. 
The boards of the binding were composed of fragments of printing (Wynkyn de 

Worde, &c.) and on some of the waste sheets is the name aiGraten written. See p. 28. 

4c*. Hymnorum opusculum cum notis musiciis secundum usum eccles. Sarisb. 
Antverp, per Chr. Endovium, 1524. 4to. [Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

41. lustiniani Institutiones. Paris, Chevallon, 1526. Folio. [Private Collection. 

Binding same as no. 10. 

42. Scriptores historiae Romanae. Coloniae, 1527. Folio. 

T,- J. rOueens' Coll., Cambridge. 

Bmdmg same as no. 13. '-•^ ' & 

43. Quintilian. Paris, 1527. 4to. [St. John's Coll., Cambridge. 

Roll V forming border at extreme edge of the four sides of the cover, and in the centre a 
panel containing 4 rows of the same roll. [Plate V.] 

43^- Sarum Manuale. Paris, Regnault, 1529. Folio. [Private Collection. 

44. Gravissimae . . . Italiae et Galliae Academiaru censurae. London. 1530. 4to. 

[St. John's Coll., Cambridge. 
Roll III forming border at extreme edge of the four sides of the cover, surrounding 
a panel consisting of two rows of the same roll, with blank centre. [Plate IV.] 

45. Dionysii Halicarnassensis opera. Paris, 1532. Folio. 

[Queens' Coll., Cambridge. 
Roll I forming border enclosing panel of two rows of same roll. 

46. Titelmanni elucidatio in omnes epistolas. Antverp, per M. Hillenium, 

1532. 8vo. [Cambridge University Library. 

Roll V forming border round extreme edge of the four sides of covers, with two impressions 
of stamp 2 in centre. [Plate VI.] 

47. Irenaei adversus haereses libri quinque, opera D. Erasmi. Basel, 1533. Folio. 

[Queens' Coll., Cambridge. 
Roll V forming border enclosing panel consisting of double rows of same crossing at 
right angles. 

42 



48. Livii opera. Paris, 1533. Folio. [South Kensington Museum. 

Roll I forming border enclosing panel consisting of three rows of roll V. 

49. Rhetoricorum M. T. Ciceronis ad Herennium libri IIII. Lugd., apud. S. 

Gryphium, 1533. 8vo. [Private Library. 

Roll V forming border on extreme edge of top, bottom and fore-edge of sides- 
Autograph : 'W. Lambarde 1559,' on title. 

50. Zachariae explicatio in Ammonii de concordia Evangelistarum. Colon. 

1535- Folio. [Emmanuel Coll., Cambridge. 

Roll V forming border on extreme edge of the four sides of the cover, enclosing a blank 
panel formed by a border of the same roll, which is connected with the outer border 
by four lengths of same roll at the corners. 

51. Oecolampadii annotationes in loseam. Basel, 1535. 8vo. 

Panel formed by border of roll V. [Salisbury Cath. Library. 

52. Cover. [Douce Collection, Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

Roll I forming border enclosing two rows of roll II. 

NICHOLAS SPIERINCK 

According to Mr. Weale, he belonged to a family of Netherlandish stationers, 
illuminators, and bookbinders, some of whom were established at Lille and 
Bruges, others at Audenarde, Antwerp, and Lyons ^. Migrating to Antwerp 
from Lille, where a binder of the same names worked for Charles the Bold, 
1469-75, he finally settled at Cambridge ^, where he lived in the parish of St. 
Mary the Great. 

It is curious that as the name Graten appears on waste sheets evidently 
coming from Godfrey's workshop, we also have the same occurrence in connexion 
with Spierinck. Mr. Gordon Duff discovered the name ' Spyrynck ' written on 
a fragment of Holt's Lac puerorum, printed by Adrian van Berghen, in the 
Bodleian. It was with several other fragments forming originally the pad for 
a Spierinck binding with the panels of the Annunciation and St. Nicholas. It 
is not supposed to be his autograph — though it might be, but the paper had 
probably covered a parcel sent to him and he had then used it to make boards 
(see Plate I). 

In Grace Book B ^, under 1505-6, amongst the receipts is : — 

recepti pro appellacione Nicholai stationarii pro vxore sua . . . xij^^. 

This may be Nicholas Spierinck : we know of no other Nicholas at this time 
who could be called ' stationarius.' 

' Weale's Bookbindings at South Kensington, I. xxxviii. ' lb. ki. 

' Edited by M. Bateson, 1903, p. 211. 

43 Ga 



In the Subsidy Roll, Cambridge, 15 Hen. VIII {22 April, 1533—21 April, 
1524) is the entry : — 

Nicholas Sperying for reformacon ....... xj. 

And on another membrane of the same roll, under the head of ' payd by 
anticipation,' is : — 

Nicholas Sperying ducheman in goods xxvli. .... Is. 

When he settled at Cambridge is not known, but most probably after Garrett 
Godfrey had been established for some time. The only indication as to where 
he lived is conveyed in the reference to the paving of the street on the church 
side towards the goodman Sperynges. This would most probably be in the 
High Street, or as it is now called, King's Parade. 

In the Parish Book of the Church of St. Mary the Great he is first met with 
during 1514-15 (Foster, p. 26), where an expenditure is entered : — 

For Irne werke of the glasse wyndow made by Nicholas Speryng 

stacioner iiijW. 

In this Parish Book his name is given in the following various ways : — 

Nicholu^ Speryng, Nicholas Spieryncke, Nicholas Speryng, Nicolaum 
Sperynk, Nicholaus Speryng, Nycolas Speryng, Nicholas Speyryncke, Mr 
Speyrinke, M"^ Speyrinck, goodman spiring, and goodman Sperynge. 

In his will ^ : — ' Nycholas Spryngs ' ; his son and grandson as 
' Spyrynke ' ; and on a panel block of St. Nicholas used on some of his bindings 
' Nicolaus Spiemick ^.' 

In 1517 he was elected one of the Churchwardens of St. Mary's (Foster, 
pp. »8, 31, 34), and again in 152a (ib. pp. 43, 47, 48, 5a), both times, by 
a singular coincidence, succeeding Garrett Godfrey in that ofiSce. In 1518 
he gave ijj. v}d. towards 'Stolying the chirche,' and ijj. v}d. towards the 
' Stoles in the Body of the Chirche ' (ib. pp. 38, 39). He was appointed 
one of the Electors in 1521 (ib. p. 43), and again in 1524, 1525, 1528, 1538, 
1542 (ib. pp. 54, 57, 64, 87, 98) ; and both an Elector and an Auditor in 1530 
and 1531 (ib. p. 58). 

In the accounts for 1525 (ib. p. $6) is : — 

Received of goodman spiring for j bushell a Refuse lyme . . . ijd, 
and in 1530 (ib. p. 73) : — 

payd to garet and nycolas speryng for ij church bokes . . . ijs. 

Petrus Kaetz, in his letter to John Siberch, circa 1523 or 1524, asks him to 
deliver the accompanying packet to ' Niclas ' (see p. 58). 

' See p. 45, 2 See p. 48. 

44 



To Erasmus he was known as well as the other stationers, and writing 
Christmas Day, 1535, to Dr. Robert Aldrich of King's College, he sends greet- 
ings to 'veteres sodales . . . Gerardum, Nicolaum, et loannem Siburgum 
bibliopolas ' (Bowes, Cambridge Printers, 287). 

In 1534 he was, with Garrett Godfrey and Segar Nicholson, officially 
appointed stationer and printer to the University : an appointment occasioned 
by Letters Patent from Henry VIII to the University, which were obtained, 
if the Grace offered to the University is correct, at the procuration and costs 
of those appointed (see Garrett Godfrey, p. 35). 

Amongst the church accounts of 1537 (Foster, p. 85 : and see p. 44) is : — 

payed for dyggyng and carrying of pavyng stone to pave the stret 

on the chirche syde towardes the goodman Sperynges . • . i\\d. 

But the entry is not explicit enough for us to identify the position of 
Spierinck's house. 

It is worth noticing an entry in the Parish Book, under 1541-a (ib. p. 95) : — 

payd to a pryst for notyng and wrytyng uppon the bare plottes in 
dyvers antyphoners and other bookes by the space of ijj. \\\)d. 
a weke, with ijW. in Ernest gyven and ffor byce and other colors 
xiij<^. xvj. \\\]d. 

Other entries are noticed in the article on Garrett Godfrey. 

It is curious that we have no record of a later dated book than the Ptolemy 
of 1533, except the undated Dorbellus [c. 1540?]. It certainly looks as if 
Spierinck had ceased binding for some time before his death. 

The latest book bound by Godfrey is dated 1535 ; yet there exists a book 
which contains Spierinck's roll over Godfrey's — Codex Iiistiniani, 1515 (see no. 
17 of ' Books bound by Godfrey'). It should also be mentioned that Spierinck 
had in his possession John Siberch's roll I (see p. 47). Spierinck's connexion 



with the bindings with the mark 



nS 



is specially treated at p. 53. 



Spierinck died either at the latter end of 1545 or at the commencement of 
1546, and was buried in St. Mary's Church. Entries of the fees paid at his burial 
appear in the Churchwardens' Accounts of 1545-^, when his son William was 
one of the Churchwardens (Foster, pp. 109, 113). And a payment of xiij</. was 
received for his 'dyrge ' the year following (Foster, p. 116). 

His will is as follows : — 

In the name of God, Amen. I Nycholas Spryngs of Cambridge Stacyoner 
being of hole mynde and memorye thanks be vnto Almighty God the xxth day 
of August the yere of Our Lord God 1545 make thys my Testament and last 
Will in manner and form followinge. First I bequeath my Sowle into the hands 
of my only Sauyour and Redemer Jesu Christe my bodye to be buryed within 
the Church of Saynte Maryes. Allso I bequeath to my buryall and to the poor 
folke X;^ also I bequeath to Annes my Wyffe xx*' marks so that she delyver to 

45 



my Executor all soche parcells of stuffe that she hathe of mine as apperythe by 
my booke also I will that she haue all soche goods and detts as were hers and 
shulde grow to her before I maryed her withowt any lett or any intruptyon of 
my Executors. Item I bequeath to Nycholas Spyrynke my Sonnes Sonne the 
howse of the Crosse Keyes And he dye withowte any yssue to Wyllm Spyrynke 
hys Father. Also I giue vnto the same Nycholas my best purse with soche 
thyngs as be in hytt. Item. I bequeath to Kateryn Spyrynke a purse and gyrdle 
with soche thyngs as be yn hytt with the corall beads. Also to Anes Spyrynke 
a silver payre of beads with a purse and soche thyngs as be in hytte. Allso I 
gyue to my master Bruar kxs. in money also to Saynte Peters Parish xxs. in 
money. The resydue of my goods vnbequej^thed I giue vnto William Spyrynke 
my Son whome I ordeyne and make myn Executor of this my last Will. Also 
I ordeyne Mr. Thomas Wendy, Doctor of Physycke Superuisor of the same to 
whom I give x\s. 

Wytnesses of thys same Testament called and desyred Mr. Wyllm Rychard- 
son sum tyme baylye of Cambridge, John Selerer of the same Towne and 
Tylman Sen. of the same Town. Proved in the University Court of Cambridge 
on the 37th day of January 154^. 

It will be seen from this will that he was a married man, and that ' his wife's 
Christian name was Agnes, and that he had a son, William, who also had a son, 
Nycholas, living at this time. 

During 1541-a, in the Parish Book (Foster, pp. 95, 97), vjj. and viijW. was 
received ' for the buryall of Mr. Sperynges wyff within the chyrche ' and xvj^. 
' for Maystres Sperynges dyrge.' This entry most probably refers to the wife 
of the son William, who was elected Churchwarden in the years 1544 and 1545 
(ib. pp. 103, 105) ; Warden of the lyghts of the church, 1538-9 (ib. pp. 87, 
90, 91) ; and an Elector 1540, 1542, and 1543 (ib. pp. 93, 98, loi). 

In the will of Olyver Aynsworth, fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge, dated 
1546 (proved Oct. 30), is an entry: — 

It. becawse I am in dett I wyll that William Spyrinke shall have all hys ix 
books of Saynt Austyn agayn which I now have of hys '- 

And on March 16, 1545, the administration of the goods, &c., of Nicholas 
Pilgrim was granted to Spierinck and others. 

And amongst the complaints submitted to the Commissioners appointed to 
redress grievances relative to Inclosures, &c., 1549 (Lamb's Original Documents, 
157; Cooper's Annals, ii. 38), is: — 

we fynde that ther is an howse of husband rye with xxx acres of lande 
therunto belonginge, nowe in the tenure of Wylliam Spyrink, dekayed and 
not inhabited, nor hath not bene these ii yeres, for then it was burned, the 
yerely rent is iiii. Ii. 

The Cross Keys which Spierinck left to his grandson is situated in Bridge 
Street in St. Peter's Parish. 

^ Information supplied me by C. J. B. Gaskoin, Esq. 
46 



SPIERINCK'S BINDINGS 

The books bound by him which are noted date from 1503 to 1533 °^ ^54° ('')• 
On these he used six rolls, six stamps, and two panel blocks (see Plates 
XVI and XXVII). None of these were used by Garrett Godfrey, though three 
are very similar, so that a minute comparative examination is required to see the 
variations noted. To these must be added John Siberch's roll I, which he used 
on the Fader. See also p. 5a (no. 43). 

Roll I, three figures of animals, a wyvern, a lion, and a griffin, facing to 
the right, separated from each other by branches of foliage, with the binder's 
mark and initials under the griffin. 

A roll similar to Godfrey's no. I, but the wyvern is a much thicker-bodied 
animal and with different wings ; the foliage between the animals is different, 
as also the order of the figures, whilst the binder's mark and initials are in a 
different position. 

It seems evident that this roll came from the same cutter's hands as that 
used by Godfrey: a similarity which also occurs in the case of other rolls 
used by the Cambridge binders of this period. 

This was evidently Spierinck's principal roll. It is used alone on nos. 10, 16, 
19, aa, a;, 41. 

With roll II on nos. a, 4, 11, la, 14, 15, 17, 18, ao, ai, 2,5, 34, 38. 

With roll III on nos, 9, 2,6, a8, 3a, 33, 37, 40. 

With roll IV on no, 19*. 

Roll II, quatrefoils within lozenges formed by diagonal lines, Godfrey had 
a similar roll, but his diagonals were ornamental lines. 
Used with roll I, see under roll I. 
Used with roll IV on no. a4, and with Siberch's roll I, on no. 43. 

Roll III, a very beautiful roll of conventional flowers and birds. 

Used alone on no. 30, 

Used with roll I on nos. 9, 36, a8, 33, 33, 37, 4°. 

Roll IV, four compartments containing a rose, pomegranate, turreted gate- 
way, and fleur-de-lis, each surmounted by a royal crown, and set in a canopied 
compartment ; the binder's mark and initials are underneath the rose. 

It resembles Godfrey's roll III, but is much better engraved, and its com- 
partments are arranged in a different order. 

Used with roll II on no. 34, and with roll I on no. 19*. 

Rolls V and VI are described at p. 53. 

Stamp I, consisting of a wyvern (?) and a bird encircled by a branch of 
foliage, and between these two figures the binder's mark and initials. 
The bird was also used on a separate stamp (see stamp 6). 

47 



Used to form border, on the earliest dated book (1503) bound by Spierlnck, 
with stamp 6, see no. i ; also on nos, 7, 31. 

Stamp a, fleuron with oval-shaped centre-piece divided into four sections 
by diagonal lines. 

Used on nos. i, 5, 7, 31, 44, A% 5°- 

Spierinck had also of this ornament stamps for the right or left half of it, 
and the top or bottom half, for use as required. 

Stamp 3, fleuron. 

Used on nos. 10, 46, 51, ^^, as also are the half stamps, similar to those 
mentioned under stamp 2. 

Stamp 4, of passion flov^er and leaves. 
Used to form border on no. 5. 

Stamp 5, diamond-shape, enclosing Venetian lily. 
Used on nos. a, 4, 11, 16, 17, 19, 2a. 

Stamp 6. Wyvern (?), encircled with a branch of foliage, the same as the 
figure on stamp i. This was used when the repetition of stamp i, forming 
a border, did not reach to the top ; this stamp filling up the vacancy and often 
obliterating the top portion of stamp i. 

Used on nos. i, 7, 31. 

Two panel blocks : (i) the Annunciation, with the binder's mark and initials 
at the foot, with a border with ' Ecce ancilla domini, fiat michi secundum verbum 
tuum ' round the illustration, (a) St. Nicholas and the three children, under 
which are the binder's mark and initials, whilst the right and left borders are 
composed of figures of the wyvern, griffin, and acorns ; the top and bottom 
containing the binder's name ' Nicolaus Spiernick.' 

The panel of the Annunciation was used with the binder's initials, ' A.H.' on 
a book dated 1524 (Weale's Bookbindings, p. ia6) ; and the same, one-quarter less 
in size by Wilhelms Voghels, on Angelus de Clavasio, Venice, 1499 (Bodleian 
Library, Oxford). 

Used on nos. 6, 8, 13, a3, a9, 35, '^6, 42. 



Folio. 



BOOKS BOUND BY NICHOLAS SPIERINCK 

I. (a) Bessarionis contra calumniatorem Platonis Venice, 1503. ) 

(b) Pontani opera Venice, 150 1. J 

[St. John's Coll., Cambridge. 
Bound into one volume. 

Border composed of repetitions of stamp I enclosing panel of diamond-shaped com- 
partments formed by triple lines, and in each compartment stamp 2. The length 
of stamp I is plainly shown on this book. The upper and lower portions of the 
border are not extended beyond the upright border on either the front or back edges. 

48 



3. Albert! Magni postilla super Lucam. Hagenau. Hen. Gran, 1504. Folio. 

[Durham Cath. Library. 
Roll I forming border enclosing panel of two rows of roll II, with centre containing four 
impressions of stamp 5, and stamp 5 between the border roll and the edge of the 
book. 

3. Margarita Philosophica. [Strasburg, circa 1504]. 4to. [E. Gordon Duff, Esq. 

4. Albert! Magni postilla super loan, et Marc. Hagenau, 1505. Folio. 

[Durham Cath. Library. 
Binding same as no. 2. 

5. Antonini archiepiscopi Florentini secunda pars historialis. Lyons, Joh. 

Cleyn [1506]. Folio. [Corpus Christi Coll., Cambridge. 

Border composed of repetitions of stamp 4, enclosing panel as on no. x (with stamps). 
Where the upper and lower borders cross the upright borders there is no impression 
of the stamp, but a blank square. The length of the stamp is plainly shown on this 
book. [Plate XIII.] 

6. Evangelia, &c. Paris, 1508. 8vo. [F. J. H. Jenkinson, Esq. 

With the two panel stamps, of the Annunciation and of St. Nicholas. Mentioned in 
Bowes's Cambridge Printers, p. 334. [Plate XVI.] 

7. Antonii Coccii Sabellici rhapsodia. 3 vols. Paris, 1059. Folio. 

[Caius Coll., Cambridge. 

Ex dono Guilielmi Hearle socii huius CoUegii 25° Martii 1604. 

Binding as no. I, except that where the borders cross each other is a blank as on no. 4. 

8. Legenda Francisci. Paris, 1510. 8vo. [E. Gordon Duff, Esq. 

Binding as no. 6. 

9. Valerii Max. Collectanea. Paris, 1510. Folio. [Corpus Christi Coll., Cambridge. 

Roll I forming border enclosing panel of three rows of roll III. [Plate X.] 

10. Platina de vitis pontificum. Venetiis, 1511. Folio. [Canterbury Cath. Library. 

Roll I forming border enclosing panel of diamond-shaped compartments, with stamp 3. 

11. Collectarius luris. 1514. Folio. [All Souls Coll., Oxford. 

Binding same as no. 2. 

la. Missale (Sarum). Paris, F. Regnault, 1515- Folio. 

[University Library, Cambridge. 
Roll I forming border enclosing panel of two rows of roll II. 

13. Missale (Sarum). Paris, Hopyl for Birckman, 1515. 8vo. 

[Bodleian Library, Oxford (Gough Missals a). 
Binding as no. 6. Mentioned by F. J. H. Jenkinson in Bowes's Cambridge Printers, 1884, 
p. 334- 

14. Codex lustiniani. Paris, 1515. [Westminster Abbey Library. 

Roll I forming border enclosing panel of two rows of same and two rows of roll II. Im- 
pressed over Godfrey's roll. See no. 1 7 of ' Books Bound by Godfrey ' for fuller particulars. 

49 H 



15. (a) Commentaria epistolarum conficiendarum Hen. Bebelii. Tubingae, 

in aed. Tho. Anshelmi Badensis, 151 1. 
(b) Bebeliana opuscula noua. Paris, Nicolaus de Pratis, 1516. 4to. 

[Aberdeen University Library. 
Owners' names : ' Thomae Cantuariensis ' and ' Lumley.' 
Roll I fonning border enclosing panel of one row of roll II. 

16. L. Valle elegantiarum libri sex. Lugd. per loh. Marion, 1516. Folio. 

fin private collection. 

Owner s name on folio i ' Whytwell.' 

Roll I forming border enclosing panel divided into three divisions by horizontal lines, 

and in each division three impressions of stamp 5. 
Impressions of stamp 5 between border and outer edges. The upper and lower borders 

do not extend beyond the vertical ones. 

17. Opuscula M. lacobi Almain. Paris, 1517. [Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

Binding same as no. 2. 

18. Francisci Irenici exegesis. Hagenoae, 1518. Folio. [Queens' Coll., Cambridge. 

Roll I forming border enclosing panel of two rows of roll II with a centre of roll I. 

19. I. Bromiardi summa predicantiu. Norlbergae, 1518. Folio. 

„. ,. ^ [St. John's Coll., Cambridge. 

Bmdmg same as no. 10. \. j • o 

19*. Confessionale Godtscalci Rosemondi. Antwerp, 15 18. 8vo. 

[Bodleian Library, Oxford. 
Rolls I and III. 

ao. Ciceronis de officiis. Lugd., 1519. Folio. [Trinity Coll., Cambridge. 

Binding same as no. 12. 

ai. Breviarium (Sarum). Paris, Regnault, 1519. Folio. 

„. ,. ,„ [University Library, Cambridge. 

Bmdmg same as no. 12. ■- ■' ■" ° 

aa. I. Ravisii Textoris officina. Paris, R. Chaudiere, i5ao. Folio. 

Bindingsameasno. 16. [Plate IX.] [University Library, Cambridge. 

Inscription on title : * Sum Academic Cantabr. 
Thomae Cantuarien.' 

33. Vocabularius utriusque iuris ab lohanne Baptista de Gaza lupis editus. 
Paris, 1530. 8vo. [Windsor Castle. 

Binding same as no. 6. Illustrated in Sir R. R. Holmes's Windsor Bookbindings. 

24.. (a) De unitate ecclesiae conservanda. Moguntiae : J. Scheffer, I5aa 

(b) Nicolaus de Clemangis de corrupt© ecclesiae statu. [1519.] 

(c) De donatione Constantini. Rome, n.d. 4to. 

[Emmanuel Coll., Cambridge. 
In one volume. ° 

' Coll. Eman, Cantab. J. Breton S.T.P. huius CoUegii Mr. moriens legavit.' 
Roll II forming border enclosing panel of two rows of roll IV. [Plate XII.] 

50 



25- Sermones lordani. Paris, D. Higman, 1521. 4to. [E. Gordon Duflf, Esq. 
Rolls I and II. 

26. Tertulliani opera. Basel, 1531. Folio. [Emmanuel Coll., Cambridge. 

Roll I forming border enclosing panel of three rows of roll III. 

27. Budaei annotationes in XXIV pandectarum libros. Paris, J. Badius Ascensius, 

1521. Folio. [Formerly in possession of Mr. G. P. Johnston of Edinburgh. 
Roll I forming border. 

28. Tho. Waldensis opera : tomus secundus. Paris, 1531. Folio. 

[Queens' Coll., Cambridge. 
Roll I forming border enclosing panel of four rows of roll III. 

29. B. Bonaventurae sermones de Sanctis. Paris, 1521. 8vo. 

[Art Library, South Kensington. 
Binding with two panel stamps as no. 6. 

30. Erasmus (a) de conscribendis epistolis. Cantabrigiae, 1521. 

(b) Antibarbarorum liber. Basel, Froben, 1520. 4to. 

[Corpus Christi Coll., Cambridge. 
In one volume. 

Roll III formfng border enclosing panel of two rows of same roll. [Plate XL] 

31. Revelationes S*° Birgittae. Nuremberg, Koberger, 1521. Folio. 

[Corpus Christi Coll., Cambridge. 
Binding same as no. I, showing plainly the size of the stamp no. I. Shows also quite 
plainly the stamp no. 6 used over the stamp no. i, on the upper and lower borders. 
[Plate XIV.] 

32. Novum Testamentum Graecum Erasmi. 1522. [Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

Roll I forming border enclosing three rows of roll III. 

33. Bedae operum tomus secundus. 1522. Folio. [Queens' Coll., Cambridge. 

Roll I forming border enclosing an inner border of roll III, with centre blank. 

34. Tho. Waldensis sacramentalia. Paris, 1523. Folio. 

[St. John's Coll., Cambridge. 
Roll I forming border enclosing panel of two rows of roll II. 

35. Erasmus, Paraphrasis in Evangelia. Basel, Froben, 1523. 8vo. 

[In private collection. 
Binding with panel stamps as no. 6. 

36. Erasmus. Versio Novi Testamenti Argentamenti, J. Hervagius, 1523. 8vo. 

[Salisbury Cath. Library. 
Binding with panel stamps as no. 6. 

37. Sallustius, cum J. B. Ascensii expositione, &c. Lugd., A. Blachard, 1523. 

Folio. [In private collection. 

' Ex libris Henrici Rowe, St' Jotlnis Colt. Cant. Alumni. Maij 16 1523 '(?) ' Alex' Boswel, 

Edinb. 1757.' 
Roll I forming border enclosing panel of two rows of roll III. 

51 H2 



38. Clichtoveus. Anti-Lutherus. Paris, S. Colinaeus, 1524. Folio. 

[Salisbury Cath. Library. 
Roll I forming border enclosing panel of two rows of roll II with a centre of roll I, 

39. lustinus. Hagenoe, 1536. [Peterhouse, Cambridge. 

40. Dionysii a Rickel comment, in Psalmos. Coloniae, 1531. Folio. 

[Queens' Coll., Cambridge. 
Panel border of roll I enclosing two rows of roll III. 

41. Ptolemaei de Geographia libri VIII. Basel, Froben, 1533. 4to. 

Sold at Sotheby's April 6, 1895, for £1 2s. Afterwards in the possession of A. C. lonides, Esq. 
Roll I. 

4a. N. Dorbelli sententiae. Paris [1540 ?]. 8vo. [Corpus Christi Coll., Cambridge. 
Binding with panel stamps as no. 6. 

43. J. Faber, Notae ... in Aristot. libb. polit. at oecon. Paris, Colinaeus, 1536, 
Folio. [Westminster Abbey Library. 

Siberch's roll I forming border enclosing two rows of Spierinck's roll II with a centre of 
Siberch's roll I. This book is most interesting, as it plainly shows that Siberch's roll 
had passed into Spierinck's possession and he had tried to obliterate the J from the roll 
by placing his own N over it, but the obliteration is not complete, as the J can be seen 
under the N. [Plate XV.] 



n^ 



The bindings with these initials are placed in this position at the end of the 
article on Spierinck because all evidence points to him as being the binder. 
All of the ten books tabulated at the end of this note have the roll V, which 
contains this mark. The roll used on books dated c. 1493 to 151 6 and c. 15*0 
is, with the exception of the small section which contains the binder's initials and 
mark, exactly the same as Spierinck's roll IV, which has been found only on 
two books (1518 and c. 1530). Roll VI is only found along with roll V, 
Therefore the stamps associated with these rolls are the same as Spierinck's 
stamps 3 and 3, the evidence all points to Spierinck as the binder of these books, 
especially as the mark is his. It is curious that we have met with no binding 
which contains either roll V or VI used along with any of the other rolls used by 
Spierinck. [See Plate XXVII.] 

From the date of the books it can easily be concluded that this roll V is 
the earlier form of roll IV. 

Mr. Weale [Bookbindings at South Kensington, i. 39) suggests that the roll 
bearing this mark was used probably by Segar Nicholson. But this is not 
possible, for Nicholson did not leave the University until after 1533, when he 
ceased to be a pensioner at Gonville Hall; and our earliest reference to him 
as a binder is in 1539 (see p. 63). 

5A 



Roll V, exactly like Spierinck's roll IV, except the compartment with the 
binder's mark and initials. Spierinck used roll IV twice on bindings dated 
151 1 and c. 1520. 

Used on all the undermentioned books \c. 1493] ^° ^5^^ ^^^ '^- ^Sso- 

Used with roll VI on nos. 45, 48, 49, 52. 

Roll VI, quatrefoils within lozenges formed by diagonal lines, which I do 
not find used by any other Cambridge binder. 
Used with roll V as mentioned. 

44. Nicasius de Voerda. Lectura libri Institutionum lustiniani. Colonie, J. 

Koelhoff \c. 1493]. Folio. [University Library, Cambridge. 

Roll V forming border enclosing panel of diamond-shaped compartments with stamp 2. 

45. Formulare instrumentorum. Cologne, P. Quentell, 1500. 4to, 

[E. Gordon Duff, Esq. 
Roll V forming border enclosing four rows of roll VI. 

46. Nicolai de Gorran postilla super epistolas Pauli. Hagenau, 1502. Folio. 

[Durham Cath. Library. 
Roll V forming border enclosing panel of diamond-shaped compartments with stamp 3. 

47. lo. Lud. Vivaldi opus regale. Lugduni, 1508. 8vo. 

[Weale's Bookbindings at South Kensington, ii. 129. 
Binding same as no. 44. 

48. Mercurlales domini lohannis Andree. Lugd., 151 o. 4to. 

[In private collection, 
Covers only : roll VI forming border enclosing panel of four rows of roll V. 

49. S. Vincentii Ferrarii sermones. Lugduni, 1513. 8vo. 

[St. John's Coll., Cambridge. 
Roll V forming border enclosing panel of four rows of roll VI. [Plate XVIII.] 

50. Le F^vre. Liber trium virorum. Paris, 1513. Folio. 

[British Museum : Guide to Exhibition in the King s Library, J 901, p. lai. 
Binding same as no. 44. 

51. Berthorius. Morale reductorium. Basel, A. Petrus, 1515. Folio. 

[Corpus Christi Coll., Cambridge. 
Roll V forming border enclosing panel of diamond-shaped compartments with stamp 3. 
[Plate XVII.] 

5a. Epistolae Paulini ep. Nolani. Paris, 1516. 8vo. 

[Corpus Christi Coll., Cambridge. 

Roll VI forming border enclosing panel of three rows of roll V. 

53. Bernardi opera omnia. Paris {c. 1520). Folio. [Caius Coll., Cambridge. 

Roll V forming border enclosing panel of diamond-shaped compartments with stamp 3. 

53 



JOHN SIBERCH 

Our knowledge of John Siberch, or John Lair of Siegburg (Weale's Book- 
bindings, xxxvii), is very limited. Richard Croke's Introductiones in rtidimenta 
graeca was printed 'Coloniae in aedibus Eucharii Cervicorni, anno a Christo 
nato M.D.X X. mense Maio expensis providi viri domini loannis Laer de Siborch' 
(Publisher's note in H. Bullock, Oratio, 1521 [1886], p. 4; F. J. H. Jenkinson, 
' On a Letter from P. Kaetz to Siberch,' Proceedings Camb. Ant. Soc. vii, 188). 
A copy of this book, bound with other tracts dated 1516 to 1530, and having 
the roll on the sides containing the initials J. S., which we attribute to Siberch, 
is in Lincoln Cathedral Library. 

In confirmation of this suggestion are the entries in the Audit and Grace 
Books of the University from 1539 to 1563 (see pp. 59) 60), where his name is 
given in the following different ways ; in chronological order : — 

lohannem law, loannes laer, lohis leer, pro sibercho, N. Siberche, M. 
Syberche, loannes Syberche, Seabrigge, Seabrydge, and Sebridge. 

There is a curious instance of a fortunate discovery connected with this 
work of Croke's, which still further confirms the suggestion that Joannes Laer 
de Siborch is our John Siberch. When Mr. Gordon Duff discovered in the 
Westminster Abbey Library, in the binding of Clichtoveus, de vita et moribus 
sacerdotum, Paris, 1519, a fragment of a hitherto unknown work printed by 
Siberch (see p. ^6), and with it a letter to Siberch from Petrus Kaetz, he also 
found a manuscript fragment of the printer's ' copy ' of this Croke's Introductiones 
(Plate XXV), which, as Mr. Jenkinson has kindly pointed out, is ' identified by the 
pencil mark for a new sheet and a new page, both agreeing with the printed book. 
The presence of this fragment seems to show that Siberch was settled at 
Cambridge when he published the Introductio.' 

This would be before May, 1530. The first book printed by him at 
Cambridge is dated Feb. 1531, so that it is in other respects extremely 
probable that he was settled in Cambridge by 1530. 

We know that he lived in the house with the sign of the Arma Regia 
(Bowes, University Printers, 386). This knowledge is gained from an entry in 
Dr. Caius's Annals of his College, made in 1569, after some property, including 
that house, had been purchased from Trinity College by Dr. Caius, the deed of 
conveyance being dated June i, 1563. The property consisted of : — 

'fower mesuages ... in the parishe of S. Michaell . . . over agaynst the 
churche and churchyerd of the same parishe betwene the lane called Michael 
Lane of the northe and the tenemente of Robert Lane baker of the south, 
and abbuttinge upon the Kings highway or high streate there on the easte, 
and the gardeynes and ortesyerdes belonging to Gonevill and Caius College . . . 
on the west.' (Willis and Clark's Cambridge, i. 160.) 

54 



The four tenements were Ansel's, Houghton's, Talbot's, and Smythe's, alias 
the ' King's Arms.' 

The entry in Dr. Caius's Annals (given me by Dr. J. Venn) is : — 

a porta humilitatis ad portam virtutis erat olim tenementum quod dice- 
batur arma regia. In eo habitabit olim lohannes Sibertus alias Siberch typo- 
graphus vniuersitatis qui aliquod Erasmi Roterodami (dum Cantabrigie ageret, 
ac Divi Hieronymi Epistolas et eundem ad Ruffinum publice prelegerit) lohannis 
Lydgati, aliorumque libros impressit 

Translation: — 

The space between the gate of Humility and the gate of Virtue was 
formerly occupied by a tenement called the King's Arms. This was once the 
residence of John Sibert, alias Siberch, the University Printer, who printed 
some books of John Lydgate and others, and of Erasmus when he was residing 
at Cambridge and publicly lectured on St. Jerome. (Willis and Clark's 
Cambridge, i. i6o.) 

Dr. Caius speaks of him as University Printer, but we have no knowledge 
of his having any official connexion with the University, unless the entries from 
the Grace and Audit Books from 1538-9 (see p. 59) would seem to point to it. 
These entries refer to a Bond of £0,0 given by him, with Dr. Ridley and 
others. In Adam Wall's Ceremonies (edited by H. Gunning, i8a8, p. 247) is 
given the form of election of a University Printer, and ' the person elected, 
and another with him give a bond to the University.' No date is given to 
this form of election, but if it existed tn Siberch's time, it seems to explain 
the existence of the bond, which was for some time treated amongst the 
debts owing to the University. Even if this particular form of election did not 
then exist it is quite possible that he was the University Printer and had to 
provide this bond of £%o. Possibly this also explains the ' cum gratia et 
privilegio ' on the title-page of the fifth book which he printed, dated October, 
1531, and on all the books printed afterwards. 

Without doubt he was the first printer to print at Cambridge, whether 
connected with the University or not ; but when we consider the state of affairs 
in the Town and University at this time, it seems that a printer, printing and 
binding works as Siberch did, could not but come under the protection of the 
University in the same way as the other stationers and bookbinders. 

Siberch printed at Cambridge from early in 1531 to late in 1533, and 
produced in these two years nine works. No one treating of the first eight can 
omit to notice the bibliography of them compiled by Mr. Jenkinson from the 
materials gathered and left unfinished by Henry Bradshaw. To this biblio- 
graphy, which also shows Mr. Bradshaw's method of arriving at the chronological 
order of the printing of books, I must refer those who are interested in the 
subject ^ 
Mn H. Bullock, Oraiio, 1521. Facsimile published by Macmillan & Bowes, Cambridge, 1886. 



The books in Mr. Bradshaw's order \ are : — 

I. Henrici Bulloci oratio, 1521 [1520-1] Feb. 
a. Augustini sermo, &c., 1531. 

3. Luciani wepl bi^dbaiv. H. Bulloco interprete, 152 1. 

4. Balduini sermo de altaris sacramento, 153 1. 

5. Erasmus de conscribendis epistolis, 153 1. 

6. Galeni de Temperamentis. Tho. Linacro interprete, 1531. 

7. loannis Roffensis episcopi contio, 1531 [1521-2] Jan. 

8. Papyrii Gemini Eleatis Hermathena, 1522, Dec. 

To these must be added : — 

9. Lily and Erasmus. De octo partium orationis constructione libellus. 4°. 

of which Mr. Gordon Duflf discovered a soh'tary leaf (of sheet D) in 1889, 
in the binding of Clicktoveus, de vita et moribus sacerdotum, Paris, H. Stephanus, 
1519, in the Chapter Library at Westminster''. With it was the first sheet 
of the Papyrius Geminus of 1532 ; also pieces of manuscript, amongst which 
were the letter from Petrus Kaetz to Siberch (see p. 58) and the manuscript 
' copy ' of Croke's Introduction which I have already mentioned (see p. 54). From 
this assortment of odds and ends from Siberch's workshop, it is concluded that 
he bound the volume containing them, although at present the roll used on 
the binding has not been identified (see Plate XXI). 

Inquiries about existing copies of works printed by Siberch, to see if by 
chance any of them were bound by himself, met with no success. But one of 
them — the Erasmus, 1521 — in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, still retained 
its original binding of Spierinck's, containing his beautiful roll III (see p. 51, and 
Plate XI). 

The following interesting notes are the result of those inquiries, to which is 
added information gained since Mr. Bradshaw's list was made: — 

4. Baldwin (a) One of the two copies in Mr. Bradshaw's list as in the 
Bodleian [4° M. 59. Art.] consists of only two (loose) leaves, which Mr. Madan 
thinks came out of the binding of the volume in which they are now preserved. 
The work is Compendium chronicorum Flandriae per lacobum Meyerum, 
Norimbergae, 1538 »- (b) A copy of this book is in All Souls Library, Oxford, 
(c) Another copy, bound by Spierinck, is in Peterborough Cathedral Library. 

5. Erasmus. The copy in Corpus Christi College Library, Cambridge, was 
bound by Spierinck, who possessed one of Siberch's rolls (see no. 43, p. 52). 

' Nos. I, 2, 6, and 8 have been issued in facsimile by Macmillan & Bowes, Cambridge, 
1 88 1 and 1886. 
= Described by F. J. H. Jenkinson, in Proceedings Camb. Ant. Soc. vii. pp. 104, 186. 
' For this and other information concerning the Bodleian books I am indebted to Mr. F. Madan. 

5-5 



6. Galen, (a) The copy in the Bodleian, printed on vellum, is in con- 
temporary stamped London binding, and is the copy given by the translator 
Linacre to Henry VIII, and by him given to Bishop Tonstal, who gave it to 
one Specheford in 1530. It was eventually given to the Bodleian Library, 
Oxford, in 1634 by Dr. Thomas Clayton, Master of Pembroke College, 
(b) The other copy at the Bodleian, in Mr. Bradshaw's list, was bequeathed to 
the Ashmolean by Anthony Wood in 1695, and transferred to the Bodleian 
Library in 1858. It wants the first four leaves, (c) The copy in All Souls 
Library, Oxford, is printed on vellum. 

(d) Mr. Robert Bowes made a most interesting discovery when examining 
the copy in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. He found it differed from 
other existing copies in various ways, notably that it contained only the 
first treatise — the 'de Temperamentis,' ending on Q5, on the verso of which 
is a woodcut of the Adoration of the Shepherds. This is the only woodcut 
illustration used at any time by Siberch, and Sir W. M. Conway considers it 
to be 'clearly a Low Country woodcut of about 1485 1.' Siberch used two 
woodcut borders on the Augustine, 1531. 

This clearly shows that there were two issues of this work with the same 
title-page. 

(e) A copy of this work, purchased by Dr. J. F. Payne, has all the variations 
which Mr. Bowes discovered at Dublin. The copy is now in the Library of the 
Royal College of Physicians. 

(f) Another copy is in the Sandars Collection in the University Library, 
Cambridge. 

8. Papyrius Geminus. A copy of the first sheet (third state) found in the 
binding of Clichtoveus, 1519, along with other fragments. 

Dr. Caius speaks of Siberch printing some works of John Lydgate (see p. ^^), 
but no such book has been discovered. 

Siberch, in his dedication to the Bishop of Ely in Baldwin's Sermo, 
153 1, claimed to be the first printer of Greek in England : he had in the two 
previously printed works used Greek type occasionally. 

On the title of the Erasmus (no. 5 — dated October, 1531) he used for the 
first time the ' cum gratia et priuilegio,' which was repeated in all the three books 
afterwards printed. 

He used the sign of his house first in the bottom portion of the border to 
the Lucian (no. 3) 1521 : the arms of England and France quarterly, supported 
by two boys, which Mr. Jenkinson says^ is to be found separately in books 
printed by Laurence Andrewe about 1527. Another form of the Arma Regia 
was used in the next book printed — Baldwin, 1521 (no. 4), (see Plate XXIII). 

* See Mr. Bowes's paper in Proceedings of Camb. Ant. Sac. ix. 
" Bibliographical Introduction to H. Bulloci oratio, 1521 [1886]. 

57 I 



These were superseded in the Fisker, 1521 (no. 7), by the printer's own trademark 
with his initials (see Plate XXIII). None of these were used in the Papyrius 
Geminus, 152a (no. 8), the last work he printed. 

Mr. Gordon Duffs interesting discovery of fragments of a hitherto 
unknown work printed by Siberch (Lily and Erasmus, see p. 56) was rendered 
more important by the discovery with them, amongst other manuscript matter, 
of a letter to Siberch from Petrus Kaetz (about 1523), who was then in London ^ 
The letter is in Dutch (see Plate XXIV) and addressed 

Dem ersamew ende vromew Jan 
van Siborch boeckdrucker 
in cambritz. H° Ir 

Wetet Jan Siborch dat ick wue« brijff vnt/angen heb soe / . . . pi^t^« van 
wuer lett^^ en^^ sij is seer goet kundt gij and^^s pro . . ./ ende w wel regirew soe 
suldi genoch to drucken Crigen soe ick blyff noch to / lond^« mys myn meyst^r 
compt ick vach hem van dag tot daeg soe en k[an] / ick selfs neyt veten van dat 
ick oufifer reyss mer soe baldt als ick / ouffer reyss sal ick dat beest doen al wat 
in tnynder macht is. / Item ick heb peter rinck 3 of 4 reyssen gesacht vand^« 
pat^^ nost^r soe hy seg[t] / mij dat hij see neyt vyndew en kan en^^ gibkerken 
en heft Jacob pasftor] / den rinck noch neyt gedaen mer hij draegt hem alle dage 
aen syn haFndt] / ende hij en viUes Jacob pastor neyt geu^«. Item ick syndt w 
25 pronos [ti] / cation en^^ 3 nouuw testame«tu»« parvo costi?« dy pronostica- 
tion dat 25 shl ste[rl] / ende dye 3 nouuw testame«tuw« kost^» sh2 d6 sterlz«^ 
soe rest w noch d6 blyff / ick w dan schuldich ick en heb neyt mer nouu»i testa- 
mentum anders [soud] / ick w mer hebben gesond^«. Anders en weet ick w 
neyt mer / toe schriue« dan leuert niclas dyt bij gebondew paxken ende grutet / 
mij baetzken myt alle w huys gesyn ende vildt w selfs neyt v^rgeeten. Walete 
per me. Petrus Kaetz. 

Translation. 

Know, Jan Siborch, that I have received your letter, as [well as specimens] 
of your letter [type], and it is very good; if you can otherwise . . . and conduct 
yourself well, then you will get enough to print. So I remain still in London 
because my master comes ; I expect him from day to day ; therefore I cannot 
even know when I cross, but so soon as I cross I shall do the best that is in my 
power. Item. I have told Peter Rinck three or four times of the pater noster, 
but he tells me that he cannot find it, and Gibkerken (?) has not yet given 
Jacob Pastor the ring but he carries it every day on his hand and he will 
not give it to Jacob Pastor. Item. I send you 25 pronostication[s] and 3 New 
Testaments small [size]. The pronostications cost one sh. sterling the 25 and 
the 3 New Testaments cost a sh. and 6d. sterling, so there is still due to 
you, which I remain in your debt. I have no more New Testaments, otherwise 
I should have sent you more. I know nothing else to write except [to ask you 
to] deliver the accompanying packet to Niclas and greet Baetzken for me with 
your whole family, and do not forget yourself. PETRUS Kaetz. 

^ F. J. H. Jenkinson, ' On a Letter from P, Kaetz to J. Siborch,' Proceedings ofCamb. Ant. Soe. 
vii. 186. 

58 



The Niclas mentioned is evidently Nicholas Spierinck the contemporary 
Cambridge binder. 

Mr. Gordon Duff supplies the following note : — 

Peter Kaetz issued in 1523 a Horae and a Manual; in 1524 a Horae, 
a Hymni cum notis, and a Psalter ; in 1525 a Processional. All his books 
were printed by Christopher of Endhoven, who was presumably the 'master.' 
Christopher of Endhoven sometime in 1526 printed an English New Testament, 
which may he the book referred to, as it was sold in bulk in London at gd. a 
copy. Christopher van Endhoven used to come over to London with books, 
and was imprisoned in the Fleet, where he finally died in 1531. 

As the colophon of Georgii Valle Commentationes, 1522 (see Plate XX), is 
dated November 10, and this work is bound by Siberch, we may suppose that 
it was bound late in the year, or even in the next, so that Siberch would still be in 
Cambridge in 1523 ; and the Clichtoveus, 1519, leads to same conclusion. But 
as his name does not appear on the Subsidy Roll April 22, 1523, to April 21, 
1524, it looks as if he left Cambridge in 1523, although Erasmus writing on 
Christmas Day, 1525, to Dr. Robert Aldrich, of King's College, Cambridge 
(afterwards Bishop of Carlisle), sends greetings to 

Veteres sodales . . . Gerardum, Nicolaum, et Joannem Siburgum 
bibliopolas. (Bowes, Cambridge Printers, 287), 

who were Garrett Godfrey, Nicholas Spierinck, and John Siberch. 

His roll I came into the possession of Nicholas Spierinck, who used it on 
the binding of Faber, 1526 (see p. 53 and Plate XV). 

We meet with an entry concerning Siberch in the Grace Book B of 
the University ^, under the date 1538-9, from which it appears that John Law, 
with Drs. Ridley, BuUoke, Wakefield, and Maundefelde, owed £0,0 sterling to 
the University, for which they had given a bond with their signatures and 
seals. 

Md insuper Quod debentur universitati per dominum lohannem law 
presbiterum alienigenam et doctores Rydley, Bulloke, Wakefelde et Maunde- 
felde viginti librae sterlingorum et habetur obligacio eorum omnium manibus 
subscripta ac sigillis consignata. 

This entry is repeated in the two following years, but in that of 1540-1 the 
name is ' Joannes laer.' 

In the Audit Book it appears in a more extended form. First, under the 
heading of debts not yet paid to the University, i54^- 

The entry is as follows : — 

[1546] Debita Universitati nondum soluta : 

Item D. Standishe. . . habet obligationem viginti librarum 

' From information supplied me by Mr. C. E. Sayle. 

59 12 



lohis leer presbj^eri alienigene doctorum ridleye bullok man- 
felde et mri wakefield pro Sibercho xx /«. 

The 1549 entry states that the bond is in the Common Chest of the 
University. 

The entry of 1553 puts the matter in a different light, but it is curious, if the 
bond really was for money advanced to Siberch, that it had not been so 
mentioned before in some of the other entries. Is it likely that the writer of the 
1553 entry did not know the actual meaning of the bond— presuming that it was 
given by him on procuring the appointment of University Printer ? (see p. 55). 

The entry is : — 

[1553] loannes Syberche debet ex pecunia prestita ei per achademiam, 
ut patet per obligacionem suam repositam in cista commUni 
cuius fideiiussores sunt Doctores Rydley BuUocke and Manfyld 
una cum Mro Wakfyld xx/?. 

Nothing more is known of Siberch. 



SIBERCH'S BINDINGS 

Only a few specimens of Siberch's bindings are known, and on most of 
these is the one fine roll (I) which was afterwards in the possession of Nicholas 
Spierinck. 

Roll I, of four compartments containing three fleur-de-lis with binder's initials, 
a rose, gateway with portcullis, pomegranate, each surmounted by a royal crown 
in a canopied compartment (Plate XXVIII). 

Weale {Bookbindings, xxxvil) says Siberch had two rolls, one as described, 
the 'other has his mark at the foot, and above it a fleur-de-lis, a portcullis, 
a turreted gateway, the arms of England ensigned with a crown, a pome- 
granate, and a Tudor rose, the interspaces being filled with foliage.' This 
roll is not met with, nor can an example of it be found in his work. A roll 
of a similar character, used by Thomas Symondes, c. 1535, is illustrated in 
C. Welch's History of the Tower Bridge, 1894, p. 46. It consists of the royal 
arms, pomegranate, rose, binder's initials with the 4 mark, surmounted 
by a galloping horse, fleur-de-lis, castle with portcullis raised. 

Used on books dated 1516 to 1523. Nos. i, 2, 3, 5, 5. 

Roll II, of seven dancing figures — four men, two women, and a piper — similar 
to a Netherlandish stamp of four dancing figures, illustrated in Weale's 
Bookbindings, p. 196. Used in the panel formed by the border of the roll 
previously mentioned, on the Valla, of 1522; alone, by a later binder, 
on Bullinger, 1538 (see Plate XXII), which has end-papers of Jasper Laet's 
Almanack and Pronostication of 1544, in St. Paul's Cathedral Library. 

60 



Roll III, of dragon, griffin, and hare, between branches of foliage: used on 
Clichtoveus^ \$\'j. 

Stamps : 

I. St. Roche, with the letter Q on the saint's wallet, 
a. St. John the Baptist. 
Both used with roll I on the Paulinus Nolanus, 1516. 

Mr. Gordon Duff has a copy oi Declarationes Erasmi, Basle, Froben, 153a, 
8vo, with these two stamps on the binding. Similar blocks used separately on 
Netherlandish bindings : St. Roche on books dated 150a and 1525 (Weale's 
Bookbindings, pp. 190, 191); St. John on books dated 1539 (ib. pp. 18, 195). 

BOOKS BOUND BY SIBERCH 

I. Paulinus Nolanus Episcopus. Epistolae et poemata. Paris ; a loanne Paruo 
et I. Badio Ascensio, 1516. 8vo. [University Library, Cambridge. 

Each side is stamped with two panel stamps : (i) of St. Roche, (2) St. John the Baptist, 
and between them is impressed a portion of roll I, showing the section with the binder's 
initials [Plate XIX]. 

3. J. Reuchlin. Liber de verbo mirifico. Hagenau, 1517. Folio. 

[Canterbury Cathedral Library. 
Binding stamped with four rows of roll I. 

3. Gersonis opera. Basil, 151 8. Folio. 

[Corpus Christi College Library, Cambridge. 
Roll I forming border enclosing psmel of two rows of the same roll. 

4. Clichtoveus. De vita et moribus sacerdotum. Paris, 1519. 4to. 

[Chapter Library, Westminster. 

Roll III forming border enclosing panel of two rows of same roll [Plate XXI]. 
Bound after Dec. 1522. 

5. R. Croci introductiones in rudimenta graeca. Colon. 1530, &c. 4to. 

[Lincoln Cath. Library. 
Binding stamped with three rows of roll I. 

6. G. Valle commentationes. Venet. 1533. Folio. 

[Clare College Library, Cambridge. 
Presented to the College Library by George Ruggle, the author of Ignoramus. 
Roll I forming border enclosing panel of two rows and a portion of a third row of roll II 

[Plate XX]. 
Colophon dated November 10, 1522, so probably bound 1523 or later. 



61 



SEGAR NICHOLSON 

Here we have an early instance of a member of the University engaging 
in business. 

Nicholson was born at Maestricht (see p. 6^), and was educated at Gonville 
Hall, Cambridge, being a pensioner, 1530-3 ^ at the same time that Siberch, 
quite close at hand, issued the first books printed at Cambridge. 

What, apparently, is the earliest reference to him as a stationer is gleaned 
from Searle's History of Queen^ College ^- 

1530. Aug. Cegarto bibliopolle pro construccione duorum illorum 
librorum in quibus statuta nostra conscribuntur cum reliquo 
eorundem ornatu et pro stampo papyri regii, qui in eorum altero 

constringitur iiijj. iiijV. 

which entry is supposed to refer to Segar Nicholson. 

We next hear of him in 1531, when he was charged with holding Protes- 
tant opinions, and having in his house the works of Luther and other prohibited 
books without presenting them to the Ordinary *. Strype, in his Life of Arch- 
bishop Parker^, under 1533, ^^7^ t^^' ^^ ^^'^ others met chiefly at a house called 
the White Horse, which was nicknamed ' Germany ' by their enemies. This house 
was chosen, because they of King's College, Queens' College, and St. John's, 
might come in more privacy at the back door. Amongst the many persons who 
attended these meetings, he names ' Segar Nicholson of Gonvil Hall.' In his 
Ecclesiastical Memorials^, Strype says that Dr. Redman had orders to 
apprehend Rodolph Bradford, Dr. Smith of Trinity Hall, Simon Smith 
of Gonville Hall, Hugh Latimer, and Segar Nicholson. Bradford escaped, but 
was apprehended afterwards. 

In the Baker MSS. (xxiv. 8a : Cooper's Annals, I. 339) is an entry from 
the Proctor's Book (1531) : — 

Edw, Heynes propter officium scribe in processe cause Heresie : 

contra Sygar . . . 8j. 

Ministro vniuersitatis pro custodia eiusdem Sygar in carcere tem- 
pore exam ' 3^. A,d. 

pro facibus ad libros comburendos 4</. 

He was long imprisoned and Foxe (Acts and Monuments, 1846, v. ay) says 
that ' the handling of this man was too, too cruel, if the report be true, that he 
should be hanged up in such a manner as well suffereth not to be named.* 
Latimer, in a 'Letter to Dr. Hubberdine ' (Strype's Eccles. Mem. I. ii. 179), who 

^ Venn's Biog. Hist. ofCaius Coll. i. 25. 

' P. 188 ; and Documents relating to the University and Colleges of Cambridge, iii. 12. 

' Venn's Caius, i. 25 ; Cooper's Annals, i. 329. 

* Vol. i. 12; Ecclesiastical Memorials, vol. I. ii. 179. 

» Vol. I. i. 486. 

63 



had preached against the new learning, said 'do you not hold in prison 
Nicolson, Smyth, Patmore, and Phillips, and with many others in prison, yet 
at this howre ? ' 

It seems strange after these recent proceedings which would have been 
known to all, that the University should in 1534 have appointed him with 
Godfrey and Spierinck, their official stationers and printers. (See p. 35.) 

In 1544, 14 Oct. 36 Hen. VIII, St. John's College granted a lease to 
Segar Nicolson of Cambridge, bookbinder, of a tenement in St. Michael's Parish 
situate between two tenements of Corpus Christi College to south and north, 
the east head, 24 feet broad, abutting on High Street, the west 13^ feet broad, 
upon a tenement in the tenure of Miles Prance, for twenty years at a rent of 
1 1 J. (Baker's St. Johiis College, ed. Mayor, i. 365). The same tenement was leased 
to Richard Modye in 1563 for twenty years from March, 1566 (ib. i. 388). 

Probably Modye relieved Nicholson of the lease when he quitted the 
business of stationer, for in 1564 he was ordained by the Bishop of London ; 
deacon, December 17 ; priest, December ai, and from the Bishop's Register we 
learn that he was then resident in St. Edward's Parish, Cambridge, that he was 
then sixty-four years of age, and that he was born at Maestricht. 

The following is the entry in the Bishop's Register : — 

Liber Ordinationum 1550-77. 

Nicholson { ^^^ dominica, XVII° viz die mensis decembris anno domini millesimo quingen- 

' tesimo sexagesimo quarto in magna Capella siue Oratorio infra palacium episco- 
pale Londoniense Reverendus pater dominus Edmundus Londoniensis Episcopus 
ordines celebrans Spirituales dilectum sibi in Christo Segar Nicholson parochie 
Sancti Edwardi in Cantabrigia oriundum apud Mastrite in Regno Germanic, 
etatis Ixiiii annos, sufficienter in hac parte dimissum ad sacrum Diaconatus 
ordinem iuxta modum et ritum ecclesie Anglicane in hac parte salubriter editum 
et ordinatum admisit et promouebat Et sic ipsum Seger in Diaconum rite et 
canonice ordinavit tunc ibidem magistro lohanne Yonge clerico sacre theologie 
baccallaureo dicto Reverendo patri in premissis assistentibus. 

Die lovis festo Sancti Thome apostoli XXI° viz die mensis Decembris 
Anno domini predicto in magna Capella siue Oratorio infra palacium 
episcopale londoniense Reverendus pater dominus Edmundus Londoniensis 
Episcopus ordines subsequentes celebrantes spirituales in presentia mei Willelmi 
Blackwell notarii publici specialiter assumpti, &c. 

Presbiteri 
Segar Nicholson vt prius. 

From the will of Garrett Godfrey (1539) we learn that Nicholson was his 
cousin (see Godfrey, p. '^(n), and to him he left ' xxx li of good and lawful money 
of Ynglonde to be payed yn iii yers next following, eury yere x li out of the 
whych I wyll that the same Sygar Nycholson shall giue and paye to my brother 
Martynes chylderen James, Kataryn, and Elsabeth to ech of them xxj. and 

63 



Nicholson 



to Nycholas Pylgrym my seruante xls.' Which means that he himself was 
left £15, to be paid in three years, £5 each year. 

We cannot point to any examples of his work as a bookbinder. Mr. Weale 
{Bookbindings, xxxix) thinks it probable that books bearing the initials attributed 
in this work to Nicholas Spierinck (see p. 52) may be bound by him; but the 
books with these initials bear dates 1508-16, and Nicholson did not leave 
Gonville Hall until 1523 or later. 

A Benjamin Nycholas alias Seger of Cambridge was apprenticed in 1565 to 
William Seres, stationer of London (Arber's Registers of Stationers' Co. i. 285): — 

Benjamin Nycholas alias Seger of Chambryge hath put hym self apprentes 
of William Seres cytizen and stacioner of London from the feaste of saynte John 
Baptiste [24 June] in the yere of our Lord God 1565. Eighte yeres. 

And in 1582, &c. (Arber's Registers of Stationers' Co., i, 114, 135, 164,307), 
there are entries in the Registers of the Stationers' Company of his receiving 
apprentices. Mr. Weale [Bookbindings, xxxix) says that this Benjamin was a 
son of Segar Nicholson. There was also a Francis Nycholas alias Seager who 
paid to the Stationers' Company v s., Sept. 23, 1557, ' in recompence of his 
brakefast, at his makynge free ' (Arber's Stationers' Co. i. 69). 

PETER BRIGHT 

We know very little of this stationer. In 1527 St. John's College granted 
a lease dated 20 April, 18 Hen. VIII, to Peter Bright, Stationer, of Cambridge 
(Baker, St. John's, i. 347), of : — 

a certen garden conteynynge in lenght viij poll and vj fote and in Brede 
in the Est ende xviij fote and in the west Ende a poll and viij fote sett lying, 
and being w'in the parysche of saynte Sepulcre in Cambridge aforsayde late in 
the tenor of William Rag. Betwene a garden of the Maister and ffellows of 
Benat College appon the North syde and a tenement of the priores of Barnwell 
appon the South side the Est had abuttynge upon the kynges dyche and the 
west hede appon the tenement belongynge to the sayde Collage of Saynte John. 

His will is as follows : — 

I Peter Bryght being of hole mynde & perfect remembrance make my 
Testament & last Will in this forme following. First I bequeath my Sowle to 
the mercy of Almighty God & my bodye to be buryed in the Church Yard of 
St. Sepulchres in Cambridge to the highe Awltar whereof for my tythes 
neglygently forgotton iij. Item I bequeath to the reparation of ye sayde 
Church ii s. Item I bequeath to the Church of Holywell in Bedfordshire 
vi s. viii d. Item I giue to the poor people of the said Parysshe xx d. to be 
distributed at the discretion of Robert Hanskome the elder of the said Parish. 
Item I giue to the poor boy called Sadylbowe x s. Item I giue to Alys Dryver 
my Wyfes kinswoman at the day of her maryage if she lyue thereunto x /. in 
money or x /. worth of stuffe of howsholde as my Executor shall think best 
if the seyde sum of x /. eyther in money or stuffe may be spared my debts 

64 



and legacies payde. Item I giue to Edward Bucknam Priest of Trinity Hall xls. 
Item I giue to my brother my gown furred before with shanks. Item I give to 
CoUette my seruant xx s. Item I will my house that I dwell in with all the 
ground as it Heth there unto belonging be sold by mine Executor and the 
money thereof comynge to be bestowed in payinge my detts and legacies. 
Item. I doo make the seyde Edward Buckinham Priest my Executor to 
order & dispose my said house with the appurtenances & all other my moue- 
ables & goods in paying my debts and legacies aforsayde and the ouerplus 
thereof if any remaineth I put to his discrecyon to bestow them amongst my 
poor kins folks as he shall think best. 

Witnesses of this my last Wyll & Testament : Roger Vykare, Jhon Pechye, 
Thomas Kymbolde, Thomas Grymstone with other moo. 

Proued in the University of Cambridge ist day of February 1545. 

LEONARD OF CHRIST'S COLLEGE 

Not long after the foundation of Christ's College, one of its members 
appears to have possessed considerable skill in bookbinding. The Church- 
wardens of Trinity parish in Cambridge for 19 Hen. VIII (i^^y-S) paid 
2,0s. ' to Leonard of Christ's College for piecing, noting and writing of an anti- 
phonar that was sore broken, and binding of the same, and for mending of the 
organ book where it was rent and torn,' and 13J. as paid to him ' for new 
covering of a grail and mending the same' (C. H. Cooper's Memoir of Margaret, 
Countess of Richmond and Derby, ed. Mayor, 1874, p. 123). 

NICHOLAS PILGRIM 

Was in employment with Garrett Godfrey who left him by will £% each 
year for three years, also his fox-furred gown, three presses, and a cutting-knife 
(see Godfrey, p. 36). We might conclude from this that Godfrey wished him 
to continue the business. 

After Godfrey's death, Pilgrim was appointed in his stead as one of the 
University Stationers, October 16, 1539 (Bowes, Cambridge Printers, p. 391). 

In the Subsidy Roll, 15 Henry VIII (1533-4) he is entered :— 

Nicholas Ducheman in wages xxj. xijrf. 

He certainly lived in the parish of St. Mary the Great, and from Easter, 1541, 
to Easter, 1543, was a Warden of the lights connected with the church, and 
presented his accounts in the usual way (Foster's Parish Book of St. Mary's, 
pp. 98, loi, loa, 104). 

During 1544-5, in the Queens' College Account Book (Searle, p. 34a), is an 
entry : — 

Nicholao Pylgrym pro statutis quibusdam domini regis quae tradidit 

doctor! Glynn tunc temporis presidi xviija?. 

65 K 



On March i6, 1545, the administration ' of all and singular the goods debts 
and rights whatsoever of Nycholas Pylgrym lately deceased was granted to 
Wm Spyrynck, John Gybbyn, and John Mere.' 

In his stead Peter Sheres was appointed by the University, Feb. 5, 1545 
(Bowes, Cambridge Printers, p. 391). 

In the Oxford University Archives is the Will of Garret Pilgrem 'bok- 
seller in Oxford,' dated 1536, which makes no mention of Nicholas, so probably 
no relationship existed between them. 

RICHARD NOKE 

Was appointed University Stationer in 1540 (Bowes, University Printers, 
p. 291). 

In the Return of the Commissioners appointed by Henry VIII to inquire 
into the several Colleges of the University, 1545-6, a Richard Noke appears as 
paying a rent of xxjj. viijV. for a tenement in St. Sepulchre's parish ^Documents 
relating to the University, &c. i. 0,']^). 

He was witness to the will of Laurence Moptyd, Master of Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, dated Nov. 9, 1557, and was left by him ' a combe of whete 
against Xmas ' (Baker MSS.). In J. Mere's diary of Visitation of the University, 
1556, under date ' xxiii December ' is ' Richard Noke and I prysed certayne stuffe 
of M' Wylkes at Jesus College ' (Lamb's Original Documents, p. 193). 

JOHN SCARLETT (OR SKARLETT) 

We know very little of this stationer. He was appointed one of the 
Electors and an Auditor of St. Mary's Parish at the Easter Meeting, 1551 
(Foster, p. 131), and for the year ending with that meeting the parish received 

off John Scarlett, for alybaster xvjd?. 

off John Scarlett for dim[idium] yers Rent off a lytell howse at ye 

west end of ye chyrche , xvj^.^ 

From this it would seem that he had not occupied the house for long. He 
died in 1551, and for the rent of this ' lytell howse,' the parish received for 
the 'iij quartares of yere i]s v]d,' which evidently was for the time up to 
Scarlett's death (Foster, p. 134). Later on we find this ' lytell howse ' described as 
under the steeple (ibid. p. 190). 

His will is as follows : — 

I John Skarlett being of a good and perfect remembrance towards God do 
giue and bequeyth my sowle & bodye into his mercyfuU hands whome he hath 
redemyd by his only death & passyon. And now this I do take to be the 
sure & perfyt confession of my fayth in the which I pray God geue me grace to 
end my lyffe. As for my goods that God hath giuen me, my detts being payd I do 

^ Foster, 122. 
66 



bestowe & bequeythe as farfurth as they doo extend in this form & maner 
folowinge : Fyrst I giue (not as a recompens for my negligent dewties but as a 
playn & sure commawndment of God sett furth in his holy word in dyvers 
places as Exodus, Leuiticus & Dewteronomie & dyuers other places both of 
the old and new testament) to the poore mens box at Loomstere and in 
Cambridge wheare most nede shalbe thowght by Peter Ventrys att eche Kxd. 
Item I do gyue to my brother Phylyppe & my syster Margery e to eche of 
them x/ if my goods do extende ther detts & wages towards them in this 
alowed. Item I do giue vnto my brother Thomas xl, I do giue to my syster 
Christian iiii/. Item I do geue vnto my Father & mother v/ & the detts of 
Steven Longs widdow vnto me for books whyche shall appere in my books. 
Item I do geue the howse with thappurtenances in Mill Street in Loomstere 
wheare in my father now dwelleth to my father & mother & after there 
decease vnto my son & heyer lawfully begotten of my body & in the defawt 
of them vnto my syster Margery. Item All the rest of my goods as books detts 
with all other thyngs which be myne at the makynge of this present I geue to 
my Wyfife Elysaby, she to paye my detts and legacyes if thei shall so farr 
extende but especyally my detts I do charge to be payed to the vttermost of 
ther dewtyes iustly required. Item I do geue to Peter Sheres my second Cote. 
Item I do geue to my father in law Thomas Ball my best gowne. Item to 
Peter Ventrys my saddle & brydle. Item I do make my Wyfife at this tyrne 
only executryx & requyryng for the loue that I do owe vnto Jesus Christ 
Thomas Ventrys my fayghtfuU frend in helpyng & M' Garbrand Harks if it 
pleaseth hym to helpe her in the sale of the seyde books & to be superuysor to 
recouer my detts & to sell any thyngs as she or them shall thynk necessarye 
Item I geue to Rowlande my prentyse his dowble stypende at his yeares ende. 
This my Wyll made the Vth yere of the reygne of our souaryne Lord Edward 
the Vlth, the Xlllth day of July, the yere of our Lorde a thousande V Cth fyftye 
& one. Witnesses Peter Ventrys, Peter Sheres, & Richard Scaderoll. 

Proved in the University Court of Cambridge, i Aug. 155 1. 

Here he mentions his wife Elizabeth and a son, his brothers Philip and 
Thomas, two sisters, Rowland his apprentice, Peter Sheres a contemporary 
stationer of the town, and others. 

From his mother and father living at Loomstere (Leominster ?), in a house 
belonging to him, we can safely conclude that he came from that place to 
Cambridge. 

His brother Philip was churchwarden of St. Mary's in 1568 and 1569 
(Foster, pp. 163, 167, 168), and St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1563-4, paid 
him three shillings for cornering, bossing, and chayninge Anatomiam Vessalii, &c. 
(J. W. Clark's Care of Books, 1901, p. 265). There is a Peter Scarlett, churchwarden 
in 1583, 1586, and 1587 (ibid. pp. 209, 314), and there are other entries in the 
Parish Books concerning them and others evidently of the same family, until we 
come down to Philip Scarlett, the bookseller, whose name appears on two 
books we know of : — 

Russell, J. Two famous pitcht battels of Lypsich and Lutzen, Camb. 
1634 (Bowes, Cambridge Books, p. 19). 

67 Ka 



Ramus, P. Dialectae libri duo. Camb. 1640 (Sayle, Early English 
Printed Books in Univ. Library, Cambridge, ii. 1296). 

Philip Scarlett's name, however, disappears from the Church Rate list after 
1 6a6 (Foster, p. 306). Probably he moved out of the parish. 

From 1633 a Peter Scarlet also appears in the Church Rate list (ib. p. 384), 
and remains for some time. 

JOHN SETH 

During 1550-1 (Foster, p. laa) the Churchwardens of St. Mary's 

paid to John Sethe for a comunion booke for ye chyrche . . iijj. viija?. 
„ to Seethe for a Salter and a homyly book . . . iijj. iiij^. 
„ for ij salters more iijj. iiijV. 

And at the Easter meeting of 1553 amongst the Electors is (Foster, p. ia8) 
' John Sothe,' a reference presumably to the same man. 

PETER SHERES 

Peter Sheres was appointed one of the University Stationers, Feb. 5, 1545 
(Bowes, Cambridge Printers, p. a6i). He succeeded Pilgrim, and like him lived 
in the parish of Great St, Mary's, of which church he was one of the Masters 
of the sepulchre light and rood light from 1554 to 1557 (Foster, pp. lag, 133, 
134), and one of the Electors, 1554 (ib. p. 139). 

He was one of the witnesses to John Skarlett's will (1551) and was left ' my 
second cote.' 

In the Church Accounts are these entries (Foster, pp. 130, 138, 141) : — 

1553-4- payd to petter sheres for a manewwell ... vs. 

,, more to hym for byndenge of the grett legent . \}s.vu]d. 
1556-7. payd to peter sheares the lath of Aprill for horse hyre . ix</. 
'^557-^- P^id to Peter Sheeres for byndynge of the antyfener 

and mendyng another book iiijj. 

He was examined by the Commissioners at the visitation of the University 
and on February 11, 1557, according to J. Mere's Diary (Lamb's Original 
Documents in Corpus College, 1838, p. ao), ' Peter Sheres had his iiii colloquies 
promised hym agayne by the vysytors to redelyver to his merchawnte, allthowghe 
thei were by them condempned.' 

He was buried in St. Mary's Church, August ao, 1569. 

We may be right in surmising that he was succeeded in his business by his 
son John. 

JOHN SHERES 

At the Easter meeting of St. Mary's parish, 157 1, amongst the Electors was 
'John Sheres stationer ' (Foster, p. 175). 

68 



But this is crossed through and the following note made, 'the said John 
Sheres being forth off the town was in his rome chosen W. bosam.' But he 
returned again to Cambridge in a few years, and in 1577 the churchwardens 
' payde to John Sheres for a servys boke vijj. v]d. (Foster, p. 188). He was 
elected churchwarden of the parish, 1577 and 1578 (ibid. pp. 186, T90), and 
chosen an elector, 1581 (ibid. p. 198). 

From his will he appears by his bequests to have been a wealthy 
man, and the mention of his numerous family, relations, and apprentices is 
interesting : — 

In the name of God Amen I John Sheres of Cambridge Stationer being 
sicke in bodye but whole in mynde (thanks be vnto God) doe make and ordeyne 
this my last wyll and testament in maner & forme folowinge First I gyue my 
soule in to the hands of Almyghtie God and my bodye to be buried in the 
parishe of St. Maries And I gyue to Anne Sheres my welbeloued Wieff the lease 
of my howse wherein I now dwell with all the implements to the same as I bowght 
it. I do also gyue vnto my same Wiff all my ewes and lambes which I suppose 
to be in number 45 Item I do gyue my sonne William Sheres one hundreth 
pounds of lawful! money of England to be payed vnto the said Wylliam at the 
age of XXI yeares. Item, I do gyue vnto Alice Sheres my daughter one 
hundreth markes, vnto Caterine Sheres one hundreth markes, and vnto Elizabeth 
Sheres my daughter one hundreth marks of lawfull money of England And 
my mynd is that neyther of my daughters shall injoie the benefit of this my 
legacie or gifte vntyll they shall have fullie accomplished the yeares of twentie 
& one or at the daye of their seuerall mariages And also I wyll that if it shall 
please God to call anye of my said children owt of this world before he or she 
haue received this my gift that then my entent is that the parte of hym or her 
so deceased shalbe equallie devided amongst the' rest of my children that shall 
so ouerlyue. Item, I do alsoe gyue vnto my mother XX' of lawfull money, to 
Anne Sheres my syster X", to Maude Sheres my syster X', to Grace Sheres my 
syster X', to be payed them at the daye of their seuerall mariages. Item, I do 
gyue vnto Peter Sheres my brother X' vnto Elizabuth Sheres my syster now 
maried in London fyve pounds vnto Joan Hanger my syster C and vnto John 
Hanger my godsonne O likewise I gyue vnto my brother William Chapman my 
greatest ringe and to my brother William Woulfe my other ringe of gold I 
gyue to Marie Francke fowrtie shillings & vnto my Aunte Raven XL* 
Also to the poore people the daye of my buriall LX'. And all my goods 
vnbequeathed I gyue vnto Anne my Wieff whom I make my sole executrix 
of this my last Wyll and testament. And I do appointe my trustie friends 
Mr. Thomas Thomas felowe of the King's College and Michael Woulf to 
be ouersears & ayders of this my executrix for the trew perfurmance of this 
my last Wyll & testament. And I gyue eyther of them for their paynes 
to be taken herein twentie nobles, furthermore I gyue vnto Reynold my 
journeman XL ' vnto Reynold my prentice XL' and vnto William Scarlet XL' 
vnto my twoe mayden seruants eyther of them twentie shillings. Also my 
mynde and wyll is that my executrix shall yearely for the space of XXX" 
yeares cause one sermon to be made in the parish churche of great 

69 



St. Maries and the preacher to haue for his paines yearely vi s. viij d. during 
the whole terme of thyrtie yeares. 

John Sheres, Gervice Babington, Edwardus Spomer, 

Sealed subscribed and delivered in the presence of Mr. Gervase Babington, 
Mr. Edward Spomer, Mr. Thomas Thomas, and Michaell Woulf. 

Proved in the University Court of Cambridge on July 13, 1581, by Ann 
Sheres, Widow, the relict. She exhibited an Inventory value ;^893 i6s. lod. 

Also proved in the Consistory Court of Canterbury because the deceased 
had debts in divers Dioceses. 

Thomas Thomas, fellow of King's College, is the Thomas Thomas, M.A., 
who was appointed University Printer, May 3, 1583 (see Bowes, Cambridge 
Printers, p. 292), and who, printing that year, had his press and materials 
seized by the Stationers' Company, which proceeding led to correspondence and 
conference between the Vice-Chancellor, Lord Burghley, and the Company. 

Thomas commenced to print again the next year, so that, after a lapse of 
more than sixty years, printing was executed at Cambridge, and has continued 
without interruption to the present day. The Jiistory of the press and the 
printers (1531-1884) has been written by Mr. Robert Bowes ('Biographical 
Notes on the University Printers from the commencement of printing in 
Cambridge,' Cambridge Antiq. Soc, Communications, vol. v, 1886), to which 
work it is hoped this monograph will form a fitting companion. 

It was originally intended to end with the account of Peter and John 
Sheres, but having met with three other stationers of the sixteenth century, 
hitherto unknown, it is best to place on record here the little found concerning 
them. 

BAXTER THE STATIONER 

In Mere's diary of the Visitation of the University ^, the Commissioners on 
February 9, 1557, ' sente for Baxter the Statyoner first and after for his 
wyffe.' On February 16, ' after dyner thei sent for . . . Baxter . . . who was 
commawnded to receyve no scholars in to their howses under payne of XXf. 
for first tyme, and expulsion for the nexte owte of the towne.' And on 
February 17 again 'thei sente for Baxter.' 

SIMON WATSON 

A churchwarden of St, Mary's Church, 1553, 1559, and 1560 (Foster, pp. 
138, 143, 149). In the accounts of 1553-4 are the entries (ibid. pp. 130, 133) :— 

payd to Simond wattson for a fayer messe book & a legent . . xiiijj. 
and 

paid to symond wattson for to presesceneres . " , . . iiijj. 

* Printed in Lamb's Original Documents, pp, 219, 223, 224, 

70 



And in 1564 is a Memorandum (Foster, p. 153) : — 

In ye hands of baylie foxton & Symont Watson to resayue of 

trynyte collydge for reparyng ye chawnsell . iij/. vijj. ixd. 

In 1557 he had to appear (like Peter Sheres and Baxter) before the 
University Commissioners for examination, and from Mere's diary (in Lamb's 
Original Documents, 191, ai6, ai8, 319, 2^$) we get the following information : — 

IV Feb. Humphry of the Dolphyn . . . and Watson the Statyoner, who all 
were examyned one after another. 

VII Feb. Mrs. Watson's servant of London came to Bronsted and me for 
her sons goodes. 

X Feb. Thei sente also for Simon Watson, but he lay sick, 

XXVIII May. Watson stacyoner came home from London. 

Under the date ' XVI December ' (1556) is : — 

a cytacyon set upp on a borde at S. Marye's churche doore, and Watson's 
stall under the Vic. seale agaynst the Visitacyon. 

JOHN CUTHBERT 

Was a member of the Stationers' Company, receiving his freedom, April 
39, 1566 (Arber's Transcripts, i. 318). He received as apprentices Reynolde 
Boyse, Sept. 39, 1568, for eight years (ib. i. 374) ; John Porter, son of Thomas 
Porter of Haslingfield, Dec. 35, 1568, for eight years (ib. i. 375) ; and John 
Hancocke, late apprentice to Thos Man, Feb. 4, 1583, to complete his 
apprenticeship (ib. ii. 115). Although not living in London he still belonged to 
the Stationers' Company in 1571, when he and ten others 'abidinge in the 
countrie ' paid ' skott and lott and all other deuties ' (ib. v. Hi). 

He was churchwarden of St. Mary's Church, 1581, 1583, and 1585 (Foster, 
pp. 199, 300, 307), and an auditor, 1584 (ib. p. 305). During 1593-4 he 
contributed two shillings towards the repair and building of the Steeple of the 
Church (ib. p. 343). In 1568 the Churchwardens (ib. p. 164) received: 'of 
Mr. Cuthbert Stationer for all the Books at yt time being which were in number 
13 small & great xj. vj(^. During 1593-4 his wife died, and there is the entry 
(ib. p. 335) ' rec'' of Mr Cuthbard for his wyves her buringe in the Church 
vjj. \\\]d.' Cuthbert himself died in 1597 and the Churchwardens (ib, p. 365) 
received ' Mr Cuthberde his buriall \]s. viijV.' 



71 



REGULATIONS CONCERNING BOOKSELLERS, 

BOOKBINDERS, AND STATIONERS 

OF THE UNIVERSITY! 

Harl. MS. 7050, p. 153, from a copy written circ. 1670. 
A DECREE— OCTOBER. ULT. AN. 1583. 

Imprimis. That no man having keeping or maintaining a shop. Family or 
Household in any place out of this University and Town of Cambridge (unlefs 
it be in Sturbridge Fair or In Midsummer fair) by himself or by any other, unlefs 
he be firfl: allowed so to do, shall keep a shop or set to sale any Books, within 
the Precincts of this sd University & Town, unlefs he be allowed so to do by 
the vicechan : & greater part of the Heads of Colleges, of this sd University. 

Item. That no Bookseller or merchant, other than already do occupy 
selling of Books within this University, shall hereafter sett up a shop & occupy 
buying & selling of Books, for himself or for any other man, within the Precinct of 
this University ; unless he shall have served as an apprentice (with some Book- 
seller now inhabiting or which shall hereafter inhabit within this University & 
Town of Cambridge) by the space of seven years, & one year as a Journeyman, 
unlefs he be firfl: allowed so to do, by the vice chancellor & greater part of the 
Heads of Colleges of this sd : University. 

Item. That in respect of these orders, ordinances, & Decrees granted & 
established by the vicechancellor & the heads of Colleges, every Bookbinder, 
Bookseller, & Stationer, now occupying selling or binding of Books within the 
Precincts of this University, shall stand severally bound to this university, in 
the summe of 40'* ; that they and every one of them occupying that Trade, 
shall from time to time & at all times provide sufficient store of all manner of 
Books fit & requisite for the furnishing of all students continuing or abiding 
within this University. And the same Books to be well bound, & to be sold 
at all & every time & times upon reasonable prices. And also that every 
Bookbinder, Bookseller & Stationer, w"*" hereafter shall use, or sett up the 
trade of selling or binding of Books there, shall before he use or sett up such 
trade, enter into Bond to the sd : university, in the summe of 40'* & to 
the like effect. 

Item. That as well, all & singular, & every Booke & Books w* shall be 
offered to be sold or put to sale. As also the price or value of all & 
singular 8c every booke & books w""* shall be hereafter sold, contrary to 
these orders, ordinances or decrees, or every of them, shall be clearly & wholy 
forfeited, & the one half of the sd : Books & money so forfeited, to be 
employ'd & converted to the use & benefit of this sd : University : And the 
other half to be equally divided, between the Proctors of this sd : university for 
the time being, & the informer in every such case. And also that every 
Person so transgressing or violating, or in any other respect transgressing or 
violating, these sd : orders, ordinances, or decrees, or any one of them, shall suffer 
imprisonment at the discretion of the vicechancellor of this University for the 
time being. 

^ Printed in Cooper's Annals, ii. 395 . 

^^ 



Item. That these orders, decrees, or ordinances shall take place and be 
effectual at the Feast of the Nativity of our Lord & Savior Jesus Christ, An : 
Dom : 1583, & so forward, to all effects & purposes. 

Item. That all & singular the said Stationers & Booksellers, shall not 
take, receive, or keep any Journeyman or apprentice, but after the Forme of the 
Statutes in that behalf provided. And also if they have any servants, wife or 
children, that for one year, they shall finde the wife & children, if either the 
sd : servant shall dye, or go out of the Town. John Bell vicechan : 

Andrew Pern. | Richard Rowland. ) Edmund Barwell. ] 

William Fulk. > Robert Norgate. > Thomas Binge. > ex registro Publico. 

Roger Goad, j Umphrey Tindall. ) Thomas Legge. j 



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II. GODFREY: PLATO, 1515 




III. GODFREY: HEINFAGEL, 1517 



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V. GODFREY: QUINTILIAN, 1527 




VI. GODFREY: TITELMANN, 1532 




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VII. GODFREY: ALBERT, 1512 




VIII. GODFREY AND SPIERINCK: JUSTINIAN, 1515 




IX. SPIERINCK: RAVISIUS, 1520 




X. SPIERINCK: VALERIUS MAXIMUS, 1510 



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XXVI. ROLLS AND STAMPS USED BY GODFREY 






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XXVIII. ROLLS USED BY SIBERCH 



INDEX 



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INDEX 



A. H., binder, 48. 
Ainsworth, Oliver, 46, 
Aldrich, Dr. Robert, 3 a. 
Andre we, Laurence, 57. 
Apprentices, Act regulating alien, 33. 
Ascham, Roger, 31. 

Babington, Gervase, 70, 

Ball, Thomas, 67. 

Balsham, Hugh de. Bishop of Ely, i. 

Barnwell Process, 6. 

Baxter, stationer, 70, 

Books containing prices of parchment, 
writing, &c., 30. 

Books deposited as 'Cautions.' See 
Cautions. 

Books for use in the University sub- 
mitted to Chancellor and Doctors, 5. 

Booksellers, Bookbinders, and Stationers 
of the University, Regulations, 1583. 
7a. 

Boswell, Alex., 51. 

Bound books from abroad, Act for- 
bidding 33. 

Boyse, Reynold, 71. 

Breton, J., 50. 

Breynans, Petrus, 26-28. 

Baldwin, John, Katrine, Margaret, 

a6. 

Bright, Peter, 64-65. 

Browne, Henry, 37, 38. 

Buckenham, Edward, 65. 

Bullock, Henry. Oratio, 1521, &c., 56. 

Erasmus's Letter to, 31. 

Bond,with others,for J. Siberch, 59. 

Caius, Dr. John, 54, 55. 
Capucino de Rethel, 39. 
' Cautions ' as sureties for performance 

of exercises, 9. 
Books written or printed on paper 

not received as, 33. 
Books with, 23. 



' Cautjons,' Sales of book, aa. 
Cervicornus, Eucharius, 54. 
Chamberlain, James, Fellow of St. 

John's College : Library sold in 

Sturbridge Fair, 15. 
Chapman, William, 69. 
Christopher of Endhoven, 59. 
Controversy between the University 

and the Archdeacon of Ely, i. 
Convocation of Clergy of Canterbury : 

Suppression of Lollardism, 6. 
Corpus Christi Gild, Cambridge, 3. 
Cots or Cotes, Thomas, 3a. 
Covenant between the University and 

Town, 150a, 13, 39- 
Cranmer, Thomas, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, 50. (Nos. 15 and aa.) 
Croke, R. Introductiones in rudi- 

menta Graeca, 54. Plate XXV. 
Cuthbert, John, 71. 

Day, George, 4a. 

Doctor of Honey Lane, 32. 

Erasmus, Letters to Hen. Bullock, 31; 
to Dr. Aldrich, 3a. 

Lectures on St. Jerome, when re- 
siding at the ' Arma Regia,' 55. 

Books printed by Siberch, ^^. 

Roger Ascham's account of, 31. 



Farman, Dr., of Honey Lane, 3a. 

Francke, Mary, 69. 

Fydyon, or Fydyohn, stationarius, 11. 

Garret van Graten, 38. 

Garrett, Thomas, 33. 

Gibbon, John, 66. 

Gibkerken, 58. 

Gimpus, Guido, 37. 

Godfrey, Agnes, 36. 

Godfrey, Garrett, 38-36 ; his binding, 

and books bound by him, 37-43- 

Plates n-Vni, XXVL 



79 



Sheres, John, 68-70. 

Maude, 69. 

Peter, 35, 67, 68, 69. 

William, 69. 

Siberch, John, 54-60, 35, 2,6, 47 ; Books 
printed by him, 55-57 ; Binding, and 
books bound by him, 60, 61. Plates 
XIX-XXV, XXVIII. 

Spierinck, Agnes, Kateryn, Nicholas, 
and William, 45, 46. 

Nicholas, 43-46, 2,5, 26, 33, 35, 58 ; 

Binding, and books bound by him, 
47-53. Plates IX-XVIII, XXVII. 

Spooner, Edward, 70. 

Spyrynck, 43. 

Squire, William, stationarius, 11. 

Stationarii, 3, 4. 

Indictments against, 4. 

declared scholars' servants, 5, 6, 29. 

subject to jurisdiction of the Chan- 
cellor, 6. 

not to carry or use cross-bow, bow 

and arrows, &c., 8. 

keepers of the University Chest, 



8,9,16. 

— Position and duties, 9, 15. 

— Yearly payments to, 11, la, 15. 

— gown, 15. 
Auditing of accounts, 10, 16. 



Stationarius, Oxford, 10. 

Stationers at Oxford and Cambridge 

exempt from Acts of Parliament, 30. 
Petition to Wolseyforappointment 

of three University, 33. 



Stationers, Letters Patent concerning ap- 
pointment of three University, 33, 34, 
Appointment of three University. 

35- 

Nominationand election of Univer- 
sity, 35. 
Statutes of the University, Old, 7. 
Sturbridge Fair, 14. 
Symondes, Thomas, 60. 

Thirleby, John, 31. 
Thomas, Thomas, 35, 69, 7c. 
Tindale's English New Testament, 33. 
Tylman, Sir, 46. 
Tyndall, Edmund, 42. 

University Chests, 7. 

Ventrys, Peter, 67. 
Voghels, Wilhelms, 48. 
Vykare, Roger, 6^. 

Wake,orWaake, Gerard, stationarius, 10. 

Wakefield, Robert, 59. 

Ward, John, stationarius, 10. 

Watson, Simon, 70-71. 

Watson, Mrs., 71. 

Wendy, Dr. Thomas, 46. 

Whytwell, 50. 

Wiclif, John : Works to be submitted 

to the Universities, 6. 
Wolsey, Cardinal, 3a. 
Woulf, Michael, 69, 70. 
Woulf, William, 69. 



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